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TERRESTRIAL AND CELESTIAL 

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PUBLICATIONS OF 
THE HISPANIC SOCIETY OF AMERICA 

No. 86 





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TERRESTRIAL AND CELESTIAL 

GLOBES 

THEIR HISTORY AND CONSTRUCTION 

INCLUDING A CONSIDERATION OF THEIR 

VALUE AS AIDS IN THE STUDY OF 

GEOGRAPHY AND ASTRONOMY 

BY 

Edward Luther Stevenson, Ph.D., LL.D. 

MEMBER OF 
THE HISPANIC SOCIETY OF AMERICA 

VOLUME I 




NEW HAVEN: PUBLISHED FOR 

THE HISPANIC SOCIETY OF AMERICA BY THE 

YALE UNIVERSITY PRESS 

LONDON. HUMPHREY MILFORD • OXFORD UNIVERSITY PRESS 

MDCCCCXXI 



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COPYRIGHT, 1921, BY 
THE HISPANIC SOCIETY OF AMERICA 



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AFFECTIONATELY DEDICATED 

TO 

MY WIFE GRACE 

MY CHILDREN KATHARINE AND EDWARD 



Table of Contents 

PAGE 

List of Illustrations xiii 

Foreword xix 

Chapter I: Terrestrial Globes in Antiquity ... l 

The beginnings of astronomical and of geographical science. — 
Primitive attempts at map construction, as seen in the Baby- 
lonian plan of the world. — Anaximander probably the first 
scientific cartographer. — Statements of Herodotus. — The place 
of Hecataeus, Hipparchus, Marinus, Ptolemy. — The Romans as 
map makers. — The earliest beliefs in a globular earth. — Thales, 
the Pythagoreans, Aristotle. — Eratosthenes and his measurements 
of the earth. — Crates probably the first to construct a terrestrial 
globe. — Statements of Strabo. — Ptolemy's statements concerning 
globes and globe construction. — The allusions of Pliny. 

Chapter II : Celestial Globes in Antiquity ... 14 

Thales' ideas, probably not a globe maker. — Eudoxus. — The 
Atlante Farnese. — Archimedes. — Allusion of Lactantius. — Pap- 
pus' allusions. — Armillary spheres. — The astronomer Hippar- 
chus. — Ptolemy. — Globes used for decorative purposes by the 
Romans. — Roman coins. — The Byzantine Leontius Mechanicus. 

Chapter III : Globes Constructed by the Arabs . . 26 

Followers of Ptolemy. — Early armillary spheres. — Interest of the 
Califs in globes and astronomical instruments. — The record 
of the 'Fihrist.' — Ibrahim. — Caissar. — Mohammed ben Helal. — 
Mohammed el Ordhi. — The Paris globes. — Ridhwan Efendi. 

Chapter IV: Terrestrial and Celestial Globes in the 

Christian Middle Ages 35 

General attitude of the period toward the theories of the Greeks and 
the Romans. — Scripture statements as sources of information. — 
Inclination of certain early writers to accept the doctrine of a 
spherical earth. — The particular attitude of Pope Sylvester II. — 

[ ix ] 



Table of Contents. 

PAGE 
The asserted interest of Emperor Frederick II in scientific 
studies. — Alfonso the Wise and the Alfonsian tables. — Interest- 
ing allusions in Alfonso's work to globes and globe construc- 
tion. — Giovanni Campano of Novara and the statements in his 
'Tractatis de sphera solida.' — The attitude of Albertus Magnus, 
Sacrobosco, Roger Bacon, Vincent of Beauvais, Dante. 

Chapter V : Globes Constructed in the Early Years of 

the Great Geographical Discoveries ... 46 

Increasing interest in geographical discovery and maritime enter- 
prise in the fourteenth and the fifteenth century. — Awakened 
interest in globe construction. — Martin Behaim and his globe of 
the year 1492. — The Laon globe. — Christopher and Bartholomew 
Columbus and their interest in globes. — John Cabot and his 
globe. — Globes of Johannes Stoffler. — Conrad Celtes and his part 
in arousing an interest in globes. 

Chapter VI : Globes of the Early Sixteenth Century . 59 

Summary of fifteenth century globe characteristics. — Increasing 
interest in globes. — Globes of Pope Julius II. — Friar Marco 
da Benevento. — Importance of the Rosselli family of Flor- 
ence. — The globe of Barnaba Canti. — Friar Giuliano Vannelli. — 
Interest of Trithemius in globes. — The Bunau globe. — Wald- 
seemiiller's map and globe. — Liechtenstein globes. — Biichlin 
reference. — Globus Mundi. — Welt Kugel. — Lenox globe. — Ja- 
gellonicus globe. — Hauslab. — Green globe of Paris. — Norden- 
skiold gores. — So-called Leonardo da Vinci gores. — Boulengier 
gores. — Acton globes. — Globes of Magellan and of del Cano. — 
Globes of Schoner. 

Chapter VII: Globes of the Second Quarter of the 

Sixteenth Century 94 

Globes indicating (a) an Asiatic connection of the New World, 

(b) globes expressing a doubt of such Old World connection, 

(c) globes showing an independent position of the New 
World. — Franciscus Monachus. — Hakluyt's reference. — The Gilt 
globe. — Parmentier. — Francesco Libri. — Nancy globe. — Globes 
of Gemma Frisius. — Robertus de Bailly. — Schoner globe 
of 1533. — Schiepp. — Furtembach. — Paris Wooden globe. — Vopel 
globes. — Santa Cruz. — Hartmann gores. — Important globe of 
Ulpius. — Cardinal Bembo's globes. — Mercator's epoch-making 
activity. — Fracastro. — Ramusio's references to globes. — Gia- 
nclli. — Florence celestial globe. 

[ X ] 



Table of Contents. 



PAGE 



Chapter VIII : Globes and Globe Makers of the Third 

Quarter of the Sixteenth Century . . . . 146 

Revival of interest in globe making in Italy. — Frangois De 
Mongenet of France and the reprint of his globe maps in 
Italy. — Gore map of Antonius Florianus. — Globe records left by 
Alessandro Piccolomini. — Ruscelli's directions for globe con- 
struction. — Reference to the work of Sanuto and Gonzaga. — 
Armillary sphere of Volpaja. — Excellent workmanship in the 
celestial-terrestrial globe of Christian Heyden. — Metal globes 
of Johannes Praetorius. — Vasari's reference to the work of 
Ignazio Danti. — The iron globe of Francisco Basso. — Armillary 
sphere of Giovanni Barrocci. — The work of Hieronymo de Bon- 
compagni. — Emanuele Filiberto. — Anonymous globe of 1575. — 
Laurentian armillary spheres. — Small globes of the Biblioteca 
Nationale of Florence. — Mario Cartaro. 

Chapter IX: Globes and Globe Makers of the Last 

Quarter of the Sixteenth Century . . . 172 

Brief summary of sixteenth-century globe making. — The close of 
the century introducing us to the great Dutch globe makers. — 
The clock maker Dasypodius. — Peter and Philip Apianus. — The 
armillary sphere of Carlus Platus. — Roll and Reinhold. — Tycho 
Brahe and his influence. — Titon du Tillet. — The terrestrial globe 
of Rouen. — Globes of Emery Molyneux. — Globes of Biirgi. — 
Ziirich globe. — Beaker globes. — Ivory globe of Antonio Spano. — 
The Van Langren globes. — Santucci. — B. F. globe of Dresden. 



[xi] 



List of Illustrations 

Frontispiece. Museum of The Hispanic Society of America Vol. I 

FIG. CHAPTER I PAGE 

1. Fragment Map of Egyptian Gold Mines. From Ckabas . 1 
1. Tablet Representing Babylonian World-Plan. Original in 

British Museum, London ..... 3 

3. Ptolemy World Map. From Ebnerianus manuscript in 

New York Public Library, ca. 1466 .... 4 

4. Sections of Peutinger Tables. Original in Imperial Li' 

brary, Vienna ....... 6 

5. Globe according to Crates. From pen drawing . . 7 

6. Globe according to Strabo. From pen drawing . . 9 

CHAPTER n 

7. Atlante Farnese, ca. 200 B.C. From Passari's Atlas Fame- 

sianus ........ 14 

8. Atlante Farnese Constellation Figures. From Passari's 

Atlas ......... 16 

9. Armillary Sphere according to Ptolemy. From original 

Vopel globe in National Museum, Washington . . 20 

10. Bosco Reale Roman Fresco, ca. 50 a.d. From original in 

Metropolitan Museum, New York .... 22 

11. Greek and Roman Coins. From originals in collection of 

American Numismatic Society, New York . . 6 

12. Roman Gems. From King's Antique Gems and Rings . 6 

CHAPTER in 

13. Northern Hemisphere of Globe by Mohammed ben Helal, 

1275. From Dorns reproduction of original in London 
Asiatic Society's collection ..... 28 

14. Globe of Mohammed ben Muwajed el Ordhi, 1279. From 

original in Math. Phys. Salon, Dresden ... 30 

[ xiii ] 



List of Illustrations. 

FIG. PAGE 

15. Globe of Diemat Eddin Mohammed, 1573. From original 

in National Library, Paris ..... 32 
15a. Anonymous Arabic Globe, 1635. From original in Li- 
brary Professor David E. Smith, New York . . 34 

CHAPTER IV 

16. The Universe according to Cosmas Indicopleustes, Sixth 

Century. From reproduction by Montfaugon . . 36 

17. Cosmas' Illustration Confuting the Existence of Antipodal 

Peoples. From reproduction by Montfaugon . . 37 

18. Hereford World Map, ca. 1283 ..... 38 

19. The Earth Pictured as a Sphere by Nicolas d'Oresme, 

1377. From reproduction in Santarem's Atlas . . 38 

20. The Constellation Taurus. From Rico y Sinobas' repro- 

duction of Alfonsian Tables ..... 42 

CHAPTER V 

21. Globe of Martin Behaim, 1492. From reproduction of 

original in Library of the American Geographical Soci- 
ety, New York ....... 46 

22. Portrait of Martin Behaim. From Ghillany ... 48 

23. Globe of Martin Behaim in Hemispheres. From Ghillany 50 

24. Lorenzo Lotto Portrait of Columbus. From original be- 

longing to James W . Ellsworth, New York . . 52 

25. Portrait of Sebastian Cabot, Son of John Cabot. From 

engraving by Rawle ...... 54 

CHAPTER VI 

26. Title-page of Johann Schoner's Terrae Descriptio, 1518. 

From original ....... 60 

27. Second Title-page of Mauro Fiorentino's Sphera Volgare, 

1537. From original . . . . . .61 

28. Holbein's Ambassadors. From original in National Art 

Gallery, London ....... 62 

29. Library of Escorial. From an old print ... 64 

30. Castle of Prince Waldburg de Wolfegg. From original 

photograph ........ 66 

31. World Map of Martin Waldseemiiller, 1507. From 

Fischer and von Wiesers reproduction ... 68 

[ xiv ] 



List of Illustrations. 

FIG. PAGE 

32. Globe Gores Attributed to Martin Waldseemiiller, 1509. 

From original belonging to Prince Liechtenstein . . 70 

33. Globus Mundi, i^og. From original • • • • 73 

34. Lenox Globe, 1510. From original in New York Public 

Library ......•• 7^ 

35. Lenox Globe in Hemispheres. From pen drawing . . 72 

36. Jagellonicus Globe, 1510. From original in Cracow . 74 

37. Jagellonicus Globe in Hemispheres. From reproduction by 

Estreicher ........ 74 

38. Green Globe, 1515. From original in National Library^ 

Paris ......... 7" 

39. Liechtenstein Globe Gores, ca. 1518. From original be- 

longing to Prince Liechtenstein .... 78 

40. Terrestrial Globe Gores of Boulengier, ca. 1518. From 

original in New York Public Library ... 80 

41. Portrait of Magellan. From an old print ... 82 

42. Portrait of Johann Schoner. From an old engraving . 84 

43. Globe of Johann Schoner in Hemispheres, 1515. From 

original and Jomard's Atlas — pen drawing . . 84 

44. Western Hemisphere of Johann Schoner's Globe, 1520. 

From Ghillany ....... 86 

44a. Anonymous Globe Gores, ca. 1540. From original in 

New York Public Library ..... 88 

45. Stabius World Globe Map, 1515. From original in Impe- 

rial Library, Vienna ...... 88 

46. Northern Celestial Hemisphere of Albrecht Diirer. From 

original in Imperial Library^ Vienna ... 28 

CHAPTER Vn 

47. Bartholomew Columbus Sketch Map, 1506. From repro- 

duction by von Wieser ...... 95 

48. Hemispheres of Franciscus Monachus, 1526. From his De 

orbis situ . . . • • • • .96 

49. Gilt Globe, ca. 1528. From Harrisse drawing after the 

original in National Library, Paris . . . .98 

50. Nancy Globe, ca. 1530. From original in Nancy Museum 100 
50a. Globe of Jacob Stamfer, 1539. From original in Zurich 100 
50b. Nancy Globe in Hemispheres. From Blau's reproduction 102 

51. Portrait of Gemma Frisius. From an old print . . 104 

52. Terrestrial Globe of Robertus de Bailly — Nine of twelve 

gores exhibiting the map, 1530. Redrawn for Rosen- 
thal's Catalogue, No. J 00 . - . . .108 

[ XV ] 



List of Illustrations. 

FIG. PAGE 

53. Terrestrial Globe of Robertus de Bailly, 1530. From 

original in Library of J. P. Morgan, New York . . 108 

54. Schoner's Terrestrial Globe, 1533 (Probable). From his 

Opera Mathematica . . . . . .110 

54a. Schoner's Celestial Globe, 1533 (Probable). From his 

Opera Mathematica . . . . . .112 

55. Paris Wooden Globe, 1535. From original in National 

Library, Paris . . . . . . .114 

56. Vopel Globe, 1543. From original in the Library of Con- 

gress, Washington . . . . . .116 

56a. Western Hemisphere of Vopel Terrestrial Globe. From 

de Costa's drawing ...... 98 

57. Terrestrial Globe of Euphrosynus Ulpius, 1541. From 

original in Library New York Historical Society . 118 

58. Western Hemisphere of Ulpius Globe, 1541. From the 

drawing by de Costa . . . . . .119 

59. Gore Map of Alonso de Santa Cruz, 1542. From Dahl- 

grens reproduction ...... 122 

60. Portraits of Gerhard Mercator and Jodocus Hondius. 

From on old print ....... 124 

61. Six of Twelve Terrestrial Globe Gores by Gerhard Mer- 

cator, 1541. From reproduction by van Raemdonck . 128 

62. Terrestrial Globe of Gerhard Mercator, 1541. From 

original in Astronomical Museum, Rome . . . 134 



CHAPTER VIII 

63. Terrestrial Globe Gores of Frangois de Mongenet, 1552. 

From original in New York Public Library . .148 

64. Celestial Globe Gores of Frangois de Mongenet, 1552. 

From original in New York Public Library . . 150 

65. Globes of Francois de Mongenet, 1560, and of Gian 

Francesco Costa, 1784 . . . . . .150 

66. Globe Gores of Antonius Florianus, 1555. From Lafreri's 

Atlas ......... 152 

67. Globe of Christian Heyden, 1560. From original in Math. 

Phys. Salon, Dresden ...... 156 

68. Globe of Johannes Praetorlus, 1566. From original in 

Math. Phys. Salon, Dresden . . . . .158 

69. Terrestrial Globe of Mario Cartaro, 1577. From original 

in possession of Mr. Reed, New York . . .168 

[ xvi ] 



List of Illustrations. 

FIG. CHAPTER IX PAGE 

70. Strassburg Clock and Globe of Conrad Dasypodius, 1574. 

From Schzuilgue . . . . • . .174 

"] I. FoTtrait o{ TettT Apiznus. From an old print . . 176 

72. Globes of Philip Apianus, 1576. From originals in K. B. 

Hof- u. Staatsbihliothek, Munich .... 178 

73., Silver-Gilt Globe of Gerhard Emmoser, 1573. From origi- 
nal in Metropolitan Museum, New York . . . 180 

74. Globe of George Roll and Johannes Reinhold, 1586. From 

original in Math. Phys. Salon, Dresden . . .182 

75. Portrait of Tycho Brahe. From an engraving by Kornenip 184 

76. Interior of Tycho Brahe's Observatory at Uranienburg. 

From Blaeus Atlas . . . . . .186 

77. Globus Magnus of Tycho Brahe, 1584. From his Astro 

nomiae Instauratae Mechanica 

78. L'Ecuy Terrestrial Globe, ca. 1578 

National Library, Paris . 

79. Terrestrial Globe of Emery Molyneux, 

nal in Middle Temple, London 

80. Anonymous Terrestrial Globe, ca. 1595 

Landesmuseum, Ziirich . 

81. Globe-Goblet of Abraham Gessner, ca 

nal in Wolf egg Castle, Wolf egg 

82. Gold Globe-Goblet, ca. 1575. From original in Metro- 

politan Museum, New York ..... 200 

83. Ivory Terrestrial Globe of Antonio Spano, 1593. From 

original in Library of J. P. Morgan, New York . . 202 

84. South Polar Region on Globe of Antonio Spano. From 

original in Library of J. P. Morgan, New York . 204 

84a. South Polar Region on Globe of Jodocus Hondius, 1600. 
From original in Library of Henry E. Huntington, New 
York ......... 204 

85. Terrestrial Globe of Van Langren, 1612. From original 

in Royal Geographical Society, Amsterdam . . 208 

86. Armillary Sphere of Antonio Santucci (*?), ca. 1580. 

From original in Library of Henry E. Huntington, 
New York . . . . . . . .214 

87. Celestial Globe of B. F., 1600. From original in Math. 

Phys. Salon, Dresden ...... 216 

[ xvii ] 



188 
From original in 

190 
1592. From origi- 

192 
. From original in 

198 
1600. From origi- 

. 200 



List of Illustrations. 

CHAP. TAILPIECES PAGE 

II. The Egyptian Gnomon. From pen drawing ... 25 

III. Arabic Celestial Globe. From Dorn's illustration . . 34 

V. Ship. From early portolan chart .... 58 

VI. Honter Globe. From his Rudimenta cosmographica . 93 

VII. Portuguese Arms ....... 145 

VIII. Compass Rose. From Martines Atlas, 1582 . . .171 

IX. Base of Apianus Globe, 1576 ..... 218 



[ xviii ] 



Foreword. 

HITHERTO there has not appeared in English a 
detailed historical treatise on globes terrestrial 
and celestial. The publications are somewhat 
numerous, it is true, in which a very general consideration 
has been given to the uses of globes, including a reference 
to their important structural features, and to the problems 
geographical and astronomical in the solution of which they 
may be counted of service. There are a few studies, critical 
and historical, touching certain selected examples of the 
early globe maker's handiwork which can be cited. Atten- 
tion, for example, may here be directed to Sir Clements 
Markham's valuable introduction to his excellent English 
translation of Hues' 'Tractatus de Globis,' a work originally 
prepared for the purpose of furnishing a description of the 
Molyneaux globes, in which introduction he undertook "to 
pass in review the celestial and terrestrial globes which pre- 
ceded or were contemporaneous with the first that were 
made in England (1592) so far as a knowledge of them has 
come down to us," yet the learned author cites but a frac- 
tion of the many globes referred to in the following pages. 
In Ravenstein's 'Behaim, His Life and His Globe,' we have 
perhaps the most scholarly treatment of its kind in any 
language, but the study is limited to the work of one man, 
the maker of the oldest extant terrestrial globe, which is 
dated 1492. 

The bibliographical list which is appended gives striking 
evidence that there has been a more or less extended interest 
in the general subject of the use and the construction of 

[ xix ] 



Foreword. 

globes in France, in Germany, in England, and in Italy. The ^ 
author makes in this place special mention of his indebted- 
ness to the studies of the distinguished Italian scholar, Pro- 
fessor Matteo Fiorini, adding that with some propriety his 
name might have a place on the title-page. Had there not 
been a ready access to his important works, had the Italian 
Geographical Society not so graciously expressed to the 
author its willingness for the free use of as much of his 
published investigations as might be desired, for which it 
stood in the relation of sponsor publisher, a willingness 
which Fiorini himself had assured to any who might have 
access to the printed results of his studies within this field, 
the preparation of this work necessarily would have ex- 
tended over a considerable period of time. Special mention 
must be made of his 'Sfere Terrestri e Celesti di Autore 
Italiano oppure fatte o conservate in Italia,' and of his 'Sfere 
cosmografiche e specialmente le Sfere Terrestri.' These works 
have been of very signal value for the study of the Italian 
globes and globe makers. Not an inconsiderable part of his 
descriptive details has been appropriated, being given in 
free translation or in paraphrase, quotation marks having 
been omitted. Special mention may also here be made of 
Sigmund Giinther's interesting little volume, which he titles 
'Erd- und Himmelsgloben nach dem italienischen Matteo 
Fiorinis frei bearbeitet.' This has been of special value for 
its bibliographical references and for its short chapters on 
globe-gore construction. 

To attempt the listing, with description, of all globes 
known to have been constructed from the earliest times to 
the close of the eighteenth century, the latter being a some- 
what arbitrary date, is pretentious. The fact is fully appre- 
ciated that in many instances the description given is all too 
brief. Many of the individual terrestrial globe maps of the 
period in question, it should be especially noted, are of the 
greatest historical and scientific value; but to have under- 
taken a more detailed and a more critical study merely of 

[ XX ] 



Foreword. 

those which may be called the most important might well 
have demanded far more time and special research than 
could have been fittingly allowed for a general survey such 
as has here been planned ; in such a course we should indeed 
have been led afield from our purpose. 

It had been thought when this study was first undertaken 
that perhaps as many as one hundred existing examples 
might be located, and that in addition to these not a few 
important references might be found to work actually done 
but now lost. Instead of the one hundred, more than eight 
hundred and fifty have been listed, and from the interesting 
experience in collecting material for the work, the pleas- 
urable hope is entertained that the published record of this 
eifort will be in some measure the means of bringing to light 
not a score but scores of other examples. Indulging this hope 
there have been added to each copy of the book a few blank 
pages for the insertion of a reference to any not mentioned 
in the following printed pages. The author begs in this con- 
nection to add an expression of his grateful appreciation for 
any word which may be sent to him concerning unmentioned 
examples, to the end that in a revised edition such exam- 
ples may be fittingly noted. The great war checked the 
search for existing examples, and prevented the inclusion of 
many illustrations which had been promised, but these were 
promises which could not be fulfilled. 

An attempt has been made, as before noted, to treat the 
subject historically, beginning with the earliest references 
to the belief in a spherical earth and a spherical firmament 
encircling it. It is not easy to fix, with anything like a satis- 
factory measure of certainty, the beginning of globe con- 
struction ; very naturally it was not until a spherical theory 
concerning the heavens and the earth had been accepted, 
and for this we are led back quite to Aristotle and beyond, 
back indeed to the Pythagoreans if not yet farther. We 
find allusions to celestial globes in the days of Eudoxus and 
Archimedes, to terrestrial globes in the days of Crates and 

[ 3cxi ] 



Foreword. 

Hipparchus. We find that the Greek geographer Strabo 
gives us quite a definite word concerning their value and 
their construction, and that Ptolemy is so definite in his 
references to them as to lead to a belief that globes were 
by no means uncommon instruments in his day, and that 
they were regarded of much value in the study of geography 
and astronomy, particularly of the latter science. There is, 
however, but one example known, which has come down 
to us from that ancient day, this a celestial globe, which is 
noted below and briefly described as the Famese globe. It 
is of marble, and is thought by some to date from the time of 
Eudoxus, that is, three hundred years before the Christian 
era. 

To the Mohammedans belongs chief credit for keeping 
alive an interest in astronomical studies during the so-called 
Christian middle ages, and we find them interested in globe 
construction, that is, in celestial globe construction; so far 
as we have knowledge, it seems doubtful that they under- 
took the construction of terrestrial globes. 

Among the Christian peoples of Europe in this same 
period there was not wanting an interest in both geography 
and astronomy. We are now learning that those centuries 
were not entirely barren of a certain interest in sciences other 
than theological. In Justinian's day, or near it, one Leon- 
tius Mechanicus busied himself in Constantinople with 
globe construction, and we have left to us his brief descrip- 
tive reference to his work. With stress laid, during the many 
centuries succeeding, upon matters pertaining to the reli- 
gious life, there naturally was less concern than there had 
been in the humanistic days of classical antiquity as to 
whether the earth is spherical in form or flat like a circular 
disc, nor was it thought to matter overmuch as to the form 
of the heavens. Yet there was no century, not even in those 
ages we happily are learning to call no longer dark, that 
geography and astronomy were not studied and taught, and 
globes celestial as well as armillary spheres, if not terres- 

[ xxii ] 



Foreword. 

trial globes, were constructed. The Venerable Bede, Notker 
Labeo, Pope Sylvester I, the Emperor Frederick II, and 
King Alfonso of Castile, not to name many others of per- 
haps lesser significance, displayed an interest in globes and 
globe making. 

The modern age opens with an interest in the expansion 
of Europe overland eastward, with this interest soon to be 
followed by greater enthusiasm in transoceanic expansion. 
With the rapidly increasing knowledge concerning the hith- 
erto unknown or but little known regions of the earth came 
a desire for better map making, came an interest intelli- 
gently directed in the construction of terrestrial globes on 
which the newly discovered parts might be represented in 
their relative positions as they are on the real spherical 
earth. To this interest Martin Behaim gave striking expres- 
sion, producing in the year 1492 his famous "Erdapfel" 
referred to above as the oldest extant terrestrial globe. His 
century closes with every evidence that the spherical theory, 
as Aristotle had expressed it nearly two thousand years 
before, could alone be accepted by geographers, and if 
spherical, the fact could be most impressively taught by the 
use of a material representation, that is, by means of a 
terrestrial globe. 

The sixteenth century opened with a marvelously in- 
creased interest in geography, the result of a climax reached 
through the transoceanic discoveries in which Columbus led 
the way. If the makers of plane maps became now increas- 
ingly active, so the makers of globes were becoming 
increasingly numerous, and at first in the countries of trans- 
alpine Europe, Globes of metal with engraved maps, as 
the Lenox and the Jagellonicus copper spheres, globes with 
manuscript maps covering a sphere of special composition, 
as were those of Schoner, globes in the preparation of which 
engraved gore maps were employed, as the Waldseemiiller, 
the Boulengier, the Gemma, and the Mercator, make their 
appearance in ever increasing numbers, the activity encour- 

[ xxiii ] 



Foreword. 

aged by those interested in a scientific study of geography 
and astronomy, and notably by seamen, in whose collection 
of navigator's instruments they were long considered to be 
of the greatest importance. 

How the globe interest in the several countries of Europe 
found expression during the sixteenth, seventeenth, and 
eighteenth centuries is fully set forth in the following 
pages, with something of an attempt at a grouping and a 
classification of the results, to the end of making more 
clear the trend of that interest, now quickened, now 
retarded, by certain temporary or permanent national 
impulses. 

It is especially interesting to note how a certain superior- 
ity in globe making exhibited itself, now in one country, 
now in another, with a lingering favor exhibited in Italy 
for the manuscript or the metal globe, while in the North, 
globes with copper engraved gore maps found increasing 
favor from the first, with a certain climax reached in the 
Netherlands in the days of Hondius and Blaeu. 

In the appended tabulated list of globes and globe 
makers, it will be noted that the makers have been listed 
alphabetically, that the kind of globe has been indicated, 
whether terrestrial, celestial or armillary sphere, with the 
date given, though sometimes only approximately, and with 
the diameter of each globe recorded in centimeters, so far 
as obtainable with an acceptable degree of accuracy, frac- 
tions thereof being omitted, these same measurements being 
repeated in the text reference to each individual example 
or edition. 

The author had been ambitious to include in his illustra- 
tions a reproduction of each known example or edition, 
showing at least the general appearance of each, but he 
fully realizes the more or less unsatisfactory character of a 
small print, and the unsatisfactory results of an attempt to 
photograph the curved surface of a sphere. Not a few of 
the many examples would prove to be of the greatest inter- 

[ xxiv ] 



Foreword. 

est and scientific value could the entire map surface have 
been given in reproduction and in size to be easily legible. 
It however can be readily understood how such an under- 
taking was necessarily considered to be unpractical. Out 
of the author's collection of about four hundred globe 
photographs, a selection has been made of those which it 
has been thought would be most suitable for illustrative 
purposes. 

It is hoped that the preliminary study herewith presented 
may lead to a number of independent and thorough investi- 
gations of important individual examples, to the end of 
clearly setting forth their great documentary value. 

There have been added to the list of illustrations certain 
important legends as they appear in the original, likewise 
a number of contemporary portraits of the distinguished 
globe and map makers of the last three centuries. In most 
instances important legends have been cited in the text in 
the exact language of the original, to which, with very few 
exceptions, a translation is added. The critical student will 
occasionally be somewhat astounded at the incorrectness of 
the language, Latin, Italian, Spanish, French or German, in 
the original. The translations into English, not infrequently, 
have been made with difficulty ; accordingly it will be noted 
in some instances that the translation is conjectural. No 
attempt has been made to correct errors ; on the contrary, the 
greatest care has been exercised to adhere faithfully to the 
original as given by the map or globe maker. 

The bibliographical list appended is full, but complete- 
ness is not pretended. Practically all of the works cited have 
been consulted, and care has been taken to include those 
held to be of the greatest importance. It will at least serve 
as a working list for those students who may wish to make 
further investigations within the field under consideration. 

An expression of sincerest thanks is here recorded to the 
very many librarians, directors of museums, and private indi- 
viduals who have so graciously responded to requests for 

[ XXV ] 



Foreword. 

information concerning the globes belonging to their sev- 
eral collections. The privilege so readily conceded for photo- 
graphing the several examples, and the time and trouble 
expended in having this work of reproduction well done, are 
nothing less than a striking evidence of the kindliest frater- 
nal spirit existing among those engaged in scientific and 
literary pursuits the world over. To the requests presented 
even the antipodes have responded. 

In concluding, the author might refer to his interest in 
globes as dating from his early boyhood days, when, in that 
country school in western Illinois, bearing the name Liberty, 
for it had been established in the first years of the Civil 
War, he studied his geography and indeed his astronomy 
lessons with the aid of a terrestrial globe and an orrery. 
Can it be that we have revised our educational methods so 
far in this country as practically to have eliminated the 
intelligent use of aids so valuable in the study of the 
branches which globes concern? They enter in fact but little 
into modem methods of instruction. If this work could be 
made to encourage their extensive use, and serve in their 
rehabilitation as aids of inestimable interest and value in 
geographical and astronomical studies, it will have served 
the purpose which is most pleasing to the author. 



[ xxvi ] 



Chapter I 
Terrestrial Globes in Antiquity 

The beginnings of astronomical and of geographical science. — 
Primitive attempts at map construction, as seen in the Baby- 
lonian plan of the world. — Anaximander probably the first 
scientific cartographer. — Statements of Herodotus. — The place of 
Hecataeus, Hipparchus, Marinus, Ptolemy. — The Romans as 
map makers. — The earliest beliefs in a globular earth. — Thales, 
the Pythagoreans, Aristotle. — Eratosthenes and his measurements 
of the earth. — Crates probably the first to construct a terrestrial 
globe. — Statements of Strabo. — Ptolejny's statements concerning 
globes and globe construction. — The allusions of Pliny. 

THE beginnings of the science of astronomy and of 
the science of geography are traceable to a remote 
antiquity. The earliest records which have come 
down to us out of the cradleland of civilization contain evi- 
dence that a lively interest in celestial and terrestrial phe- 
nomena was not wanting even in the day of history's dawn- 
ing. The primitive cultural folk of the Orient, dwellers in its 
great plateau regions, its fertile valleys, and its desert 
stretches were wont, as we are told, to watch the stars rise 
nightly in the east, sweep across the great vaulted space 
above, and set in the west as if controlled in their apparent 
movement by living spirits. To them this exhibition was 
one marvelous and awe-inspiring. In the somewhat strange 
grouping of the stars they early fancied they could see the 
forms of many of the objects about them, of many of their 
gods and heroes, and we find their successors outlining these 
forms in picture in their representations of the heavens on 

[ 1 ] 



Terrestrial and Celestial Globes. 

the material spheres which they constructed. Crude and 
simple, however, were their astronomical theories relative 
to the shape, the structure, and the magnitude of the great 
universe in which they found themselves placed/ 

Then too, as stated, there was something of interest to 
the people of that early day in the simple problems of geog- 
raphy; problems suggested by the physical features of their 
immediate environment; problems arising as they journeyed 




Fig. 1. Fragment Map of Egyptian Gold Mines. 



for trade or traffic, or the love of adventure, to regions now 
near, now remote. Very ancient records tell us of the 
attempts they made, primitive indeed most of them were, 
to sketch in general outline small areas of the earth's sur- 
face, usually at first the homeland of the map maker, but 
to which they added as their knowledge expanded. The early 
Egyptians, for example, as we long have known, made use 
of rough outline drawings (Fig. i)' to represent certain 

[ 2 ] 



Terrestrial Globes in Antiquity. 

features of special sections of their country, and recently 
discovered tablets in the lower Mesopotamian valley (Fig. 
2) interestingly show us how far advanced in the matter 
of map making the inhabitants of that land were two thou- 
sand years before the Christian era.^ We are likewise 
assured, through references in the literature of classical 
antiquity, that maps were made by the early Greeks and 
Romans, and perhaps in great numbers as their civilization 




Fig. 2. Tablet Representing Babylonian World-Plan. 



advanced, though none of their productions have survived 
to our day. To the Greeks indeed belongs the credit of first 
reducing geography and map making to a real science.* No 
recent discovery by archaeologist or by historian, interesting 
as many of their discoveries have been, seems to warrant an 
alteration of this statement, long accepted as fact. 

The credit of being the first scientific cartographer has 
been generally assigned to the Greek Anaximander of 
Miletus (610-547 B. C.).' While there is not a detailed 

[ 3 ] 



Terrestrial and Celestial Globes. 

description extant of the maps he is reputed to have made, 
we know that he accepted the so-called Homeric idea, that 
the earth has the form of a circular disc,® and is surrounded 
by the Ocean Stream, an idea generally approved by the 
Ionic School of Philosophers/ It is not improbable that we 
have an allusion to the work of Anaximander in the His- 
tory of Herodotus (484-400*? B. C), wherein we are told 
that Aristagoras, the tyrant of Miletus, when on a mission 
to Cleomenes, the King of Sparta, carried with him "a 
copper plate on which was engraved the whole circuit of 
the earth, and likewise all the Seas and Rivers."^ In another 
passage, Herodotus takes occasion to criticise maps of this 
circular character. "I laugh," he says, "when I see that, 
though many before this have drawn maps of the Earth, 
yet no one has set the matter forth in an intelligent way; 
seeing that they draw the Ocean flowing round the Earth, 
which is circular as if drawn with compasses, and they make 
Asia equal in size to Europe. In a few words I shall declare 
the size of each division and of what nature it is as regards 
outline."^ It is, however, interesting to observe that the 
father of historical geography and of history nowhere 
records his idea of a properly constructed map, and further 
that the circular form, which he condemned, is one which 
found wide acceptance even to the close of the middle ages. 
We are not definitely informed as to just the course of 
improvement or advancement in early scientific map making 
among the Greeks, yet not a few names are known to us of 
those who made it a matter of special endeavor, as they 
specifically stated, to improve the work of their predecessors. 
We, for example, are told that Hecataeus (550-480 B. C.),^" 
likewise a native of Miletus, improved the maps of Anaxi- 
mander, and that scientists of his day were astonished at his 
results; that Dicaearchus of Massina (350-290 B. C.)" was 
the first to employ a central line of orientation on a map, 
one passing through the Mediterranean east and west, and 
that he represented on his map all the lands known since 

[ 4 ] 







£ 

o 

Ph 
CO 



Terrestrial Globes in Antiquity. 

the expedition of Alexander the Great into the Far East; 
and further, that Eratosthenes, the librarian of Alexandria 
(276-196 B. C.),^^ was the first to attempt a representation 
of the curved surface of the earth on a plane in accord with 
geometrical rules. The scientific cartographical ideas of 
Eratosthenes were further developed by Hipparchus (180- 
125 B. C.)," who is generally referred to as. the greatest 
astronomer of antiquity, and by Marinus of Tyre (fl. ca. 
100 A. D.)," who introduced the idea of inscribing lines of 
latitude and longitude on a map, crossing the same at right 
angles, which lines could be made to serve the useful pur- 
pose of orientation and be of assistance in giving proper 
location to all known places on the earth's surface. 

Map making in that early period reached its climax in 
the work of Claudius Ptolemy of Alexandria (ca. 87-150 
A. D.)." His ideas, however, seem not to have found gen- 
eral favor with his contemporaries, nor with the geographers 
of the middle ages. (Fig. 3.) It was not until the so-called 
period of great geographical discoveries and explorations in 
the fifteenth century that he became a real teacher within 
his chosen field. 

Map making and the science of geography were continu- 
ously progressive among the Greeks. Imperial Rome wit- 
nessed little progress in either field. Among those who wrote 
in the Latin language, Pomponius Mela (fl. ca. 43 A. D.)^^ 
and Pliny (ca. 23-79 A. D.)^^ alone have rank of impor- 
tance. In the matter of map construction the Romans held 
to many of the cruder methods and ideas of the Greeks, a 
fact which we learn from the fragmentary references in 
their literature, and from the itinerary or road maps (Fig. 
4), of the period of the emperors, which have come down 
to us.^® 

The idea of a globular earth was at first accepted by 
the geographers of antiquity with some hesitancy. That 
Thales (640-548 B. C.)," one of the earliest astronomers 
and cosmographers, openly supported this theory, as is some- 

[ 5 ] 



Terrestrial and Celestial Globes. 

times asserted, is hardly probable. It is rather to be assumed 
that according to his idea the earth has the form of a cylin- 
der, and that it moves within a hollow sphere, an idea 
upheld by Anaximander, his disciple and successor, to whom 
reference has been made above. It was the Pythagorean 
philosophers who appear to have first transferred to the 
earth that which had already been accepted as a theory rela- 
tive to the heavens, including the imaginary circles and the 
circular or spherical form, apparently arguing that the earth 
is a sphere because that is the most perfect form, that it is 
located in the center of the universe because that is the 
place of honor, and that it is at rest because rest is more 
dignified than motion.'° It however was Aristotle who 
undertook, in the manner of a philosopher, an elaborate de- 
fense of the Pythagorean doctrine of a globular earth, sup- 
porting his arguments, first, through a reference to such 
positive proof as may be found in gravitation or "the 
tendency of all particles of matter to form themselves about 
the middle and thus make a sphere," and secondly, through 
a reference to the appearance of the earth's shadow cast 
during an eclipse of the moon.^^ A third proof, so familiar 
to us today, that distant objects as we approach them grad- 
ually reveal themselves above the horizon, seems not to 
have occurred to Aristotle, but was first employed by Strabo. 
"It is evident," says the latter, "that, when persons on ship- 
board are unable to see at a distance lights which are on a 
level with the eye, the cause of this is the curvature of the 
sea; for if those lights are raised to a higher level, they 
become visible, even though the distance is increased; and 
in like manner, if the beholder attains a greater elevation 
he sees what was previously hidden. . . . Again, when men 
are approaching the land from the sea, the parts nearest 
the shore-line come more and more into view, and objects 
which at first appeared low attain a greater elevation. "^^ 

After the attempt had been made to determine the cir- 
cumference of the earth, as was done by Eratosthenes with 

[ 6 ] 




mm 



I'Mpilwiilliiiii ■liiiiniliii^^ ' 




Fig. 4. Sections of Peutinger Tables. 







Fig. 11. Greek and Roman Coins. 





Fig. 12. Roman Gems. 



Terrestrial Globes in Antiquity. 

more or less satisfactory results, the thought, very naturally, 
was suggested of making an artificial representation of the 
entire earth, so far as then understood, that is, of making 
a terrestrial globe. There is no intimation, however, in any 
early allusion to Eratosthenes that he was a globe maker, 
or that he knew anything about globe construction. We 
know that he thought of the earth as a sphere placed in 




Fig. 5. Globe according to Crates. 



the center of the universe, around which the celestial sphere 
revolves every twenty-four hours.^^ Strabo, at a much later 
date, in referring to the geographical ideas of Eratosthenes, 
censured him for his unnecessarily elaborate proofs of the 
earth's spherical character, apparently thinking the fact one 
too well known to require demonstration. 

It appears to have been the grammarian Crates of Mallos, 
a contemporary of Hipparchus, and a member of the Stoic 
School of Philosophers, who made the first attempt to con- 

[ 7 ] 



Terrestrial and Celestial Globes. 

struct a terrestrial globe (Fig. 5), and that he exhibited 
the same in Pergamum, not far from the year 150 B. C.^* 
It seems to have been Crates' idea that the earth's sur- 
face, when represented on a sphere, should appear as divided 
into four island-like habitable regions. On the one hemi- 
sphere, which is formed by a meridional plane cutting the 
sphere, lies our own oecumene or habitable world, and that 
of the Antoecians in corresponding longitude and in opposite 
latitude; on the other hemisphere lies the oecumene of the 
Perioecians in our latitude and in opposite longitude, and 
that of the Antipodes in latitude and longitude opposite to 
us.^^ Through the formulation and expression of such a 
theory the idea of the existence of an antipodal people was 
put forth as a speculative problem, an idea frequently dis- 
cussed in the middle ages, and settled only by the actual 
discovery of antipodal regions and antipodal peoples in the 
day of great transoceanic discoveries.^" That Strabo, at a 
later date, had this Pergamenian example in mind when 
stating certain rules to be observed in the construction of 
globes seems probable, since he makes mention of Crates' 
globe. Strabo alone among ancient writers, so far as we at 
present know, treats of terrestrial globes, practically such as 
we find in use at the present day. He thought that a globe 
to be serviceable should be of large size, and his reasoning 
can readily be understood, for what at that time was really 
known of the earth's surface was small indeed in compari- 
son with what was unknown. Should one not make use of a 
sphere of large dimensions, the habitable regions (Fig. 6), 
in comparison with the earth's entire surface, would occupy 
but small space. What Strabo states in his geography is 
interesting and may here well be cited. "Whoever would 
represent the real earth," he says, "as near as possible by 
artificial means, should make a sphere like that of Crates, 
and upon this draw the quadrilateral within which his chart 
of geography is to be placed. For this purpose however a 
large globe is necessary since the section mentioned, though 

[ 8 ] 



Terrestrial Globes in Antiquity. 

but a very small portion of the entire sphere, must be capa- 
ble of containing properly all the regions of the habitable 
earth and of presenting an accurate view of them to those 
who wish to consult it. Any one who is able will certainly 
do well to obtain such a globe. But it should have a diameter 
of not less than ten feet; those who can not obtain a globe 
of this size, or one nearly as large, had better draw their 
charts on a plane surface of not less than seven feet. Draw 





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/t^ 


-'"'x'^X 


X^ V 


' y rJS 


^-v. \ "/^^Xx 


/ ^^ ^ ^^?4^ 


Za r^ 


\ v^^ \ 


RA 


%^ 


^^s?^C\\ ^^\ 


^^-7^^^ 


\ V \ ^^^^\ 


^4^ 


^^^^- 


^^II^^^^^^ 




--.^___ 


__— — -"^^ -^ 




}m 


^^x^ 


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^w 


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y^ 




^^==^^ 


'^-^^^^'^^ 



Fig. 6. Globe according to Strabo. 



Straight lines for the parallels, and others at right angles to 
these. We can easily imagine how the eye can transfer the 
figure and extent (of these lines) from a plane surface to 
one that is spherical. The meridians of each country on the 
globe have a tendency to unite in a single point at the poles ; 
nevertheless on the surface of a plane map there would be 
no advantage if the right lines alone which should represent 
the meridians were drawn slightly to converge."" 

It is not at all improbable that Strabo and Ptolemy made 

[ 9 ] 



Terrestrial and Celestial Globes. 

considerable advance in the practical construction of terres- 
trial globes, for it seems reasonable to conclude that they 
were in possession of such objects when writing, as they did, 
concerning them. 

Ptolemy, we may note, expressly allowed that the size of a 
globe should be that which one might desire, and that it 
was not necessary it should be of large size. It was this 
great Alexandrian cosmographer who first demonstrated the 
scientific value of drawing on the surface of a globe or map 
the network of parallels and meridians, and of establishing 
by means of the two geographical coordinates the true geo- 
graphical position of every known place. To the end of 
making globes more serviceable he suggested the use of a 
meridian circle, such as is today employed in globe con- 
struction, passing through both poles, within which circle 
the globe might be made to move freely on its axis. He, 
however, in this connection, did not give technical direc- 
tions for the construction of terrestrial globes, but he says 
enough to assure us that the art of globe construction was 
measurably well understood in his day, and that the Greeks 
and the Romans considered them very useful instruments in 
the study of the heavens and the earth. ^^ 

The allusions of the naturalist Pliny (23-79) ^^ ^^^ 
spherical shape of the earth give us no particular intimation 
that he knew of the existence of terrestrial globes, but they 
are interesting as indicating a belief of his time in its 
spherical form, a belief, judging from the nature of the 
argument, apparently drawn from Aristotle. Referring to 
the shape of the earth, he observes that "everyone agrees it 
has the most perfect figure. We always speak of the ball of 
the earth, and we admit it to be a globe bounded by the 
poles. It has not indeed the form of an absolute sphere, from 
the number of lofty mountains and flat plains; but if the 
termination of the lines be bound by a curve, this would 
compose a perfect sphere. And this we learn from arguments 
drawn from the nature of things, although not from the 

[ 10 ] 



Terrestrial Globes in Antiquity. 

same considerations which we have made use of with respect 
to the heavens. For in the heavens the hollow convexity 
everywhere bends on itself and leans upon the earth as a 
center, whereas the earth rises up solid and dense like some- 
thing that swells up and is protruded outward. The heavens 
bend toward the center, while the earth goes out from the 
center, the continual rolling of the heavens about it forcing 
its immense mass into the form of a sphere."^® 



NOTES 

1. Most of the larger general works presenting an historical survey of 
the science of astronomy give consideration to its beginnings, noting the 
interest in the subject exhibited by the early Egyptians, Assyrians, Baby- 
lonians, and by other Eastern peoples. See the introductory pages of such 
works as Dalambre, M. Histoire de I'astronomie ancienne. Paris, 1817; 
Lockyer, J. N. The Dawn of Astronomy. New York, 1894; Allan, H. A. 
Star Names and their Meanings ; Wolf, R. Geschichte der Astronomic. 
Miinchen, 1877 ; Madler, J. H. Geschichte der Himmelskunde von den 
altesten bis auf die neuste Zeit. Braunschweig, 1873. 2 vols.; Narrien, J. N. 
An Historical Account of Origin and Progress of Astronomy. London, 1833. 

2. Chabas, F. Ouvres diverses publiees par G. Maspero. Paris, 1902. Tome 
deuxieme, Plate II, p. 208, "Carte Egyptienne de mines d'or." 

3. Cuneiform Texts from Babylonian Tablets, etc., in British Museum. 
London, 1906. Vol. 22, Plate 48. This Babylonian plan of the world illus- 
trates the idea concerning the world which was current in the late Baby- 
lonian period. It represents the region of Babylonia, Assyria, and the 
neighboring districts as a circular plain surrounded by the Persian Gulf 
(Ma-ra-tum). The city Babylon (Babylu) is indicated near the center, and 
next to it the land of Assyria (Ashshur). The position of certain other 
cities is indicated. The district toward the south, bordering the Persian 
Gulf, is represented as being full of canals and marshes. Toward the north 
is marked a district which is referred to as mountainous. Beyond the circle 
is represented the Persian Gulf, and a number of triangles pointing outward 
from the circular zone, each being labeled "region," indicating a vague 
conception concerning the same. 

4. Numerous works have been published referring to the geography of 
the ancients. Mention may here be made of the following as being impor- 
tant. In each may be found extensive bibliographical references. Berger, H. 
Geschichte der wissenschaftlichen Erdkunde der Griechen. Leipzig, 1887- 
1894. This work was issued in four parts. Forbiger, A. Handbuch der 
alten Geographic nach den Quellen bearbeitet. Hamburg, 1877 ; Schmidt, 
M. C. P. Zur Geschichte der geographischen Litteratur bei den Griechen 

[ 11 ] 



Terrestrial and Celestial Globes. 

und Romcrn. Berlin, 1887 ; Bunbury, E. H. History of Ancient Geography. 
London, 1883. 2 vols.; Tozcr, H. F. A History of Ancient Geography. 
Cambridge, 1897. See also The History of Herodotus ; The Geography of 
Strabo ; The Natural History of Pliny ; The Geography of Ptolemy. 

5. Schmidt, op. cit., p. 12; Bunbury, op. cit., Vol. I, p. 122; Berger, op. 
cit., pt. 1, pp. 8-14. 

6. Iliad, XVni, 446-447 ; XXI, 225-228 ; Odyssey, V, 282 ; XII, 380. 

7. They indulged much in speculation concerning the physical constitution 
of the world. 

8. Herodotus. Historia. Bk. V, chap. 49. Citation from translation by 
Macaulay, G. C. The History of Herodotus. London, 1890. 2 vols. 

9. Herodotus, op. cit., Bk. IV, chap. 8, 36; II, 21, 23. 

10. Bunbury, op. cit.. Vol. I, chap, v ; Schmidt, op. cit., p. 13 ; Berger, 
op. cit., pt. 1. 

11. Cicero. Epistolae ad Atticum. vi. 2; Bunbury, op. cit.. Vol. I, p. 617. 

12. Berger, op. cit., pt. 3; Bunbury, op. cit.. Vol. I, chap. xvi. 

13. Berger, op. cit., pt. 3; Bunbury, op. cit., Vol. II, chap, xvii, sec. 1. 

14. Bunbury, op. cit., Vol. II, chap. xxvi. Marinus is known to us only 
at second-hand. Ptolemy extols him in the highest terms, but he undertook 
to reform his maps just as Marinus had undertaken to reform the maps of 
his predecessors. 

15. Bunbury, op. cit.. Vol. II, chaps, xxviii-xxix ; Mollweide, S. Die Map- 
pierungskunst des Ptolemaus. (In : Zachs Monatliche Korrespondence zur 
Beforderung der Erd- und Himmelskunde. Weimar. Bd. 11, pp. 322 ff.) ; 
Nordenskiold, A. E. Facsimile Atlas. Stockholm, 1889. This last-named 
work gives consideration to the Atlas of Ptolemy, to the numerous editions 
of his Geographia, to his geographical errors. The twenty-seven maps 
printed in the 1490 Rome edition of the Atlas are reproduced. See also the 
printed lists of the editions of Ptolemy's Atlas by Eames, W., Winsor, J., 
Philipps, P. L. 

16. Bunbury, op. cit.. Vol. II, chap, xxviii, sec. 2; Fink. Mela und seine 
Geographic. Rosenheim, l88l. Mela titled his work, "De situ orbis." Excel- 
lent tr. into English by Golding, Arthur. London, 1585. Various printed 
editions, first in 1471. 

17. Bunbury, op. cit., Vol. II, chap. xxiv. Various editions of original; 
various English translations. Pliny titled his work, "Naturalis historia." 

18. Miller, K. Die Wcltkarte des Castorius, genannt Peutingersche Tafel. 
Ravcnsburg, 1887 ; Porena, F. Orbis pictus d'Agrippa. Roma, 1883 ; Des- 
jardins, E. La Table dc Peutinger d'apres I'original conserve a Vienne. 
Paris, 1896. 

19. Lewis, G. C. Historical survey of the Astronomy of the Ancients. 
London, 1862. pp. 80 ff. ; Berger, op. cit., pt. 1. 

20. Bunbury, op. cit.. Vol. I, chap, iv, sees. 4, 5. 

21. A scientific foundation for the spherical theory seems not to ante- 
date Aristotle. See especially his work, Dc Coelo, Bk. II, chap. 14, and for 
a good translation of this work by Taylor, T., bearing title. On the 
Heavens, from the Greek with copious elucidations. London, 1807. Plato's 
statement in Phaedo merely observes that the earth, if like a ball, must be 
suspended without support in the interior of a hollow sphere. See also the 
Book of Job, chap, xxvi, v. 7, where reference is made to the earth hanging 
upon nothing. There is here probably the expression of an early Assyrian 
or Babylonian belief in a spherical earth. 

[ 12 ] 



Terrestrial Globes in Antiquity. 

22. Strabo. Geographia. Bk. I, chap, l, §20. Sec translation by Jones, H. L. 
The Geography of Strabo. New York, 1917. 8 vols. 

23. Bunbury, op. cit.. Vol. I, pp. 619-620. 

24. Wachsmuth, C. De Cratte Mallota. Leipzig, i860; Berger, H. Ent- 
wickelung der Geographic dcr Erdkugel bei den Hellenen. (In: Grenz- 
boten. Vol. xxxiv, pp. 408 ff.) ; MiillenhofF, C. (In: Deutsche alterthums- 
kunde. Berlin, 1895. p. 248.) Diodorus Siculus attributes the discovery of 
the use of the globe to Atlas of Libya. 

25. Berger. Gcschichte, pt. 2, p. 135 ; Fricdrich, R. Materialien zur Be- 
griffsbestimmung des Orbis Terrarum. Leipzig, 1887. 

26. A belief in the existence of antipodal peoples, very clearly was 
accepted by Pythagoras, Eratosthenes, Crates, Posidonius, Aristotle, Strabo, 
and later by Capella. Numerous others presupposed the earth to be globular 
in shape. See Kretschmer, K. Die physische Erdkundc im christlichen 
Mittelalter. Wien, 1889. pp. 54-59, wherein the author gives consideration 
to the doctrine of the antipodes as held in the middle ages. Berger. 
Gcschichte, pt. 3, p. 129, notes that the idea of the earth's division into 
four parts or quarters persisted for centuries after Crates' day, if not among 
scientific geographers, at least among those who could be said to have 
possessed general culture. Cleomcdes, Ampclius, Nonnus, and Eumenius 
mention the idea as one to be accepted. See in this connection the world 
map of Macrobius, a reproduction of which may be found in Nordcnskiold, 
op. cit., pi. XXXI. See also Miller, K. Die Weltkarte des Beatus, 776 
nach Christus. Stuttgart, 1895. p. 28. 

It was thought that Africa did not extend to the equator, or at least 
was not habitable to the equator. Below the equator there was thought to 
be water but beyond the uninhabitable and impassable torrid zone a habit- 
able region. The map of Lambertus well represents this early theory. 
Pomponius Mela called the inhabitants of this southern region "Antich- 
thoni," their country being unknown to us because of the torrid zone inter- 
vening. Pliny, and after him Solinus, says that for a long time the island 
of Taprobana (Ceylon) was thought to be the region occupied by the 
Antichthoni. 

27. Strabo, op. cit., Bk. II, chap, v, §10. 

28. Ptolemy. Geographia. Bk. I, chap. 22. 

29. Pliny, op. cit., Bk. II, chap. 64 ; Bk. II, chap. 2. 



[ 13 1 



Chapter II 
Celestial Globes in Antiquity 

Thales' ideas, probably not a globe maker. — Eudoxus. — The 
Atlante Farnese. — Archimedes. — Allusion of Lactantius. — Pap- 
pus' allusions. — Armillary spheres. — The astronomer Hippar- 
chus. — Ptolemy. — Globes used for decorative purposes by the 
Romans. — Roman coins. — The Byzantine Leontius Mechanicus. 

THOUGH we find but an occasional reference to 
terrestrial globes in the literature of classical 
antiquity, numerous statements appear therein 
which assure us that celestial globes, solid balls as well as 
armillary spheres, were constructed in those early centuries, 
for both practical and ornamental purposes. There exists, 
however, considerable uncertainty as to the exact character 
of the earliest of these globes. 

The information we have concerning the Ionic School of 
Philosophers, of which school Thales is reputed to have 
been the founder, does not give us any satisfactory evi- 
dence that attempts were made by any of their number at 
a material representation of their astronomical or geographi- 
cal theories. They were content, in the main, with mere 
philosophical or cosmical speculations. The statement, there- 
fore, that Thales himself constructed a celestial globe, on 
which to represent his notion of the crystal sphere, is not 
well authenticated.^ 

While not assured to us by any positive statement, there 
appears to be good reason for believing the astronomer 
Eudoxus of Cnidos (409-356 B. C.) made use of a celestial 

[ 14 ] 




Fig. 7. Atlante Farnese, ca, 200 B. C. 



Celestial Globes in Antiquity. 

globe on which to represent certain astronomical theories 
which he entertained." He traveled in Eg^^pt in his later life, 
where he carried on his studies, and where he seems to have 
learned the construction of star catalogues. On his return to 
his own country he is reported to have undertaken the 
representation of the several constellations known to him, 
on a celestial sphere. The astronomical poem of Aratus 
(fl. 270 B. C.),^ so frequently cited and copied in follow- 
ing centuries, is considered to be a description of the 
constellations according to Eudoxus. 

In the Royal Museum of Naples there may be found a 
large marble celestial globe, 65 cm. in diameter (Fig. 7), 
which the mythical Atlas bears on his shoulders, the statue 
itself being 1.86 m. in height, resting on one knee.* This 
very interesting and artistic object was transferred to 
Naples museum from the Famese Palace in Rome, hence 
is generally referred to as the Atlante Farnesiano. Forty- 
two constellations are represented on its surface (Fig. 8), 
and the five wanting, including Ursa Major and Ursa 
Minor, probably owe their absence to the obliteration which 
time has brought about. From the position of the several 
constellations, relative to the intersecting points of the 
ecliptic with the equator, it is thought that it must have 
been constructed at least three hundred years before the 
Christian era. It seems therefore to date from about the 
time of Eudoxus, being then the oldest extant globe. 

We learn from Cicero and from other early writers that 
Archimedes (ca. 287-212 B. C), the celebrated geometri- 
cian of Syracuse, constructed a globe or contrivance for the 
purpose of demonstrating the movements of the heavenly 
bodies. Cicero's statements imply that the work of Archi- 
medes was well known in his day, yet he thought it merited 
a special word of commendation from himself. "I shall pro- 
pose nothing new to you," he says, "nor that which I have 
invented or discovered ; but I remember C. Sulpicius Gallus, 
a very learned man, as you know, when this appearance (in 

[ 15 ] 



Terrestrial and Celestial Globes. 

the heavens) was spoken of, and he was, by chance, at the 
house of Marcellus, who had been consul with him, he 
described a globe among the spoils of that opulent and 
magnificent city of Syracuse, when captured, as the only 
thing among all the spoils which he ordered to be carried 
to his own house ; about which globe I have often heard, on 
account of the fame of Archimedes, although the work 
itself was not very remarkable, for there was another far 
more beautiful and more honored by the common people, 
made by the same Archimedes, and placed in the Temple of 
Virtue by the same Marcellus. But afterward when Gallus 
began to explain scientifically the object of the machine, I 
thought there was more ingenuity in that Sicilian than 
human nature was capable of. For Gallus informed me that 
there was another ancient invention of a solid and elabo- 
rately formed globe which was made by Thales, the 
Milesian, to revolve. And afterward the same was, by 
Eudoxus of Cnidos, the disciple of Plato, adorned with the 
fixed stars of heaven, and with every ornament and embel- 
lishment, as described by Eudoxus, and was many years 
afterward celebrated by Aratus, not exactly in the scientific 
language of astronomy, but with the graces of poetry. This 
species of globe indeed, in which the sun and moon were 
made to revolve, and five of those stars which have been 
called travelers, and as it were wanderers, could not possibly 
be exhibited on that solid sphere. And more especially was 
that invention of Archimedes to be admired, for he had so 
contrived that one revolution of the machine served some- 
how to produce unequal and varied movements through 
their different paths. For when Gallus set the globe in 
motion, the moon succeeded the sun by as many turns of 
the brass wheel of the machine as days in the heavens, so 
that the globe represented in the heavens the same eclipse 
of the sun, when the moon arrived at a certain place or 
point, as the shadow of the earth did when the sun shone 
from the opposite region."^ 

[ 16 ] 




* ■ fii/a/i/f-JE QhiriL'Sobhtujr lim CD drculjjs.liiu nn-'chJiylF Tropicus Cane riGN Lire ulusScm 

\ C/i!i.-r /iffiirc-nttiiJn maximu'- m lutituJim- iji-nJ .j.iT' jM B KCrh p/ira yfsK-'rismi iJoipUantuars'Z 

Cifri^imt /.^irj-.^^uarius .LJhruJji/rc'W\BSt'q:erituri!i.r.5yjlpiih:yJ^e//'//i^ if Bq^'sus g £pL^f^S]o 

HctviJcj-u Ccrotia &rejUsiiZ-(j/ i-ii ■ iz Ci/nmu-l4^ndr(»nriiairi fajsu^pc-a ■ifi'f^r.icc Tjt^cphinjs. 



Fig. 8. Atlanta Farnese Constellation Figures. 



Celestial Globes in Antiquity. 

Lactantius' allusion to Archimedes, at a later date, is 
perhaps derived from Cicero, but it is none the less interest- 
ing as indicating a belief that such a globe had existed. In 
his characteristic vein he refers to the mechanical device, 
finding therein a support for his theological arguments. 
"Was Archimedes of Sicily able to contrive a likeness and 
representation of the universe in hollow brass," he inquires, 
"in which he so arranged the sun and moon, that they 
effected, as it were every day, motions unequal and resem- 
bling the revolutions of the heavens, and that sphere, while 
it revolved, exhibited not only the approaches and with- 
drawings of the sun or the increase and waning of the moon, 
but also the unequal course of the stars, whether fixed or 
wandering'? Was it then impossible for God to plan and 
create the original, when the skill of man was able to repre- 
sent them by imitation*? Would the stoic, therefore, if he 
should have seen the figures of the stars painted and fash- 
ioned in that brass, say that they moved by their own 
design, and not by the genius of the artificer^"® Giinther 
notes that at the beginning of the seventh book of the col- 
lection of Pappus, geometrician of Alexandria, may be 
found a reference to those skilled in mechanical devices in 
which it is stated that "Mechanicians are those who under- 
stand how to construct celestial globes and to represent the 
heavens and the course of the stars moving in circles by 
means of like circular movements of water."^ It has been 
thought that in this passage we have a reference to a globe 
such as was probably constructed by Archimedes, although 
the reference is not to any particular example. It seems not 
improbable that the globe of Archimedes was made to 
revolve by an hydraulic contrivance, and that it resembled 
a planetarium or orrery,^ That the science of hydrostatics 
had been developed by Archimedes' time to a high degree is 
very certain. 

Instruments for measuring angles and distances were very 
early employed in the field of astronomy as well as in the 

[ 17 ] 



Terrestrial and Celestial Globes. 

field of geography. Of these instruments the Egyptian gno- 
mon appears to have been the oldest.® In its best form it 
consisted of a bowl having a perpendicular rod or staff 
erected at the central point of the inner curved surface. This 
rod cast a shadow upon the inner surface of the bowl, which 
had been graduated, giving a reading in degrees which 
furnished to the observer the information desired. Time 
brought improvements and variations in the construction of 
simple instruments of this character. As early as the third 
century before the Christian era, adjustable rings, or armil- 
lae, for example, were employed by astronomers to aid them 
in the solution of their problems, which instruments later 
developed, as noted below, into the more elaborate and 
complex armillary spheres. The simplest form of such an 
instrument appears to have been but a single graduated 
circle. To this, at a very early date, a second was added, 
thus providing an instrument in which one of the circles was 
regarded as fixed in the plane of the equator, the other, 
intersecting this at right angles, served as a meridian circle, 
being movable around an axis which could be called the 
world axis, the axis of the celestial sphere, or the axis of 
the universe. The position of a celestial body in declina- 
tion could be determined on the meridian circle, and its 
right ascension on the fixed or horizon circle.^*^ It seems 
altogether probable that Eratosthenes made use of such 
an instrument in his efforts to measure the obliquity of the 
ecliptic. He tells us that in his time one of large dimensions 
hung in the portico of the academy of Alexandria. ^^ With 
the addition of other circles, and of an adjustable view- 
tube, that more accurate and detailed measurements might 
be made, this device, in Hipparchus' day, came to be known 
as an astrolabe, and, after the addition of other rings in later 
years, to be known as an armillary sphere. Even in this last 
development it was not a true sphere on which could be 
represented the starry constellations, but an arrangement of 
circles forming a sort of imaginary sphere, the circles being 

[ 18 ] 



Celestial Globes in Antiquity. 

intended to represent the relative position of the principal 
celestial circles. This instrument seems, at first, to have been 
suspended, when in use, but later was made to rest upon a 
base, the whole adjusted to revolve around an axis and 
within a graduated horizon circle. In the earliest examples, 
the earth at the center of the circles, it represented the 
Ptolemaic system (Fig. 9); in the later examples, having 
the sun at the center, it represented the Copemican system. 

It is expressly stated by Ptolemy that a celestial globe 
was constructed by Hipparchus, who is reputed to have 
been the founder of spherical trigonometr\^,^' and Pliny tells 
us that Hipparchus was the inventor of the astrolabe," 
which statement probably means that he greatly improved 
the simple armillae used at an earlier date as an instrument 
for astronomical calculations. 

Ptolemy, in his 'Syntaxis,' or 'Almagest' as it was called 
by the Arabs, devoted a chapter to the method of construct- 
ing, and to the use of the astrolabe, which must have closely 
resembled the armillary sphere, describing therein, in terms 
not altogether easy of comprehension, its several rings and 
cylinders, and the method of adjusting the same for pur- 
poses of determining the latitude and the longitude of 
celestial bodies. He tells us also how to construct a repre- 
sentation of the sphere of the fixed stars by means of a 
solid ball, how to place thereon the several constellations, 
and how to use the same in the study of astronomical prob- 
lems. Such a globe, he says, "should be of a dark color, that 
it might resemble the night and not the day." His descrip- 
tion is detailed as to the proper method of procedure in 
marking the position of the celestial circles on this globe, 
in arranging the movable rings of "hard and well polished 
material," in graduating the rings and adjusting them to 
move about an axis which is likewise an axis of the globe 
proper. In marking the position of the fixed stars, we are 
told that the proper method is to commence at some con- 
stant and invariable point of a certain constellation, and he 

[ 19 ] 



Terrestrial and Celestial Globes. 

suggests that the best starting point is the fixed star in 
Canis Major, that is, the so-called dog star, or Sirius. "The 
position of the other fixed stars, as they follow in the list, 
could easily be determined," he says, "by making the globe 
to turn upon the poles of the zodiac, thus bringing the 
graduated circle to the proper point of each. The stars 
could be marked with yellow or with such other color as 
one might choose, having due regard for their brilliancy 
and magnitude. The outline of each of the constellations 
should be made as simple as possible, indicating with light 
strokes, differing but little in color from that of the surface 
of the globe, the figures which the stars in the several con- 
stellations represent, preserving in this manner the chief 
advantage of such representation, which should be to make 
the several stars very prominent without destroying, by 
a variety of color, the resemblance of the object to the 
truth. It will be easy to make and to retain a proper com- 
parison of the stars if we represent upon the sphere the real 
appearance or magnitude of the several stars. While neither 
the equator nor the tropics can be represented on the globe, 
it will not be difficult to ascertain the proper position of 
these circles. The first could be thought of as passing through 
that point on the graduated meridian circle which is 90 
degrees from the poles. The points on this meridian circle 
23 degrees 51 minutes (sic) each side of the equator will 
indicate the position of the tropics, that toward the north 
the summer solstitial circle, that toward the south the 
winter solstitial circle. With the revolution of the globe 
from east to west, as each star passes under the graduated 
meridian circle, we should be able to ascertain readily its 
distance from the equator or from the tropics."" 

That the Romans especially interested themselves in 
globes, either celestial or terrestrial, is not at all probable, 
because of their very practical inclinations. There is evi- 
dence, however, that in the time of the emperors celestial 
globes were constructed, especially in the studios of sculp- 

[ 20 ] 




Fig. 9. Armillary Sphere according to Ptolemy. 



Celestial Globes in Antiquity. 

tors, but these were made largely for decorative purposes, 
having therefore an artistic rather than a scientific value. 
In the year 1900 there was found in a villa at Boscoreale, 
not far from Pompeii, an interesting fresco (Fig. 10), this 
being acquired by the Metropolitan Museum of New York 
in the year 1903. It has been referred to as a sundial, but 
was clearly intended to represent, in outline, a globe exhib- 
iting the prominent parallels and a certain number of the 
meridians. It is not at all improbable that such subjects 
were frequently selected for wall or floor decoration. ^^ It 
appears that astrologers at times made use of globes in fore- 
casting events.^^ It may further be noted that on certain 
early Roman coins there may be found the representation 
of a globe (Figs. 11, 12), which perhaps had as its prime 
significance the representation of universal dominion." 

Not until the day of the Byzantine Emperors do we meet 
with a real scholar who made a particular study of such 
astronomical apparatus, apparatus which he describes in a 
special treatise. Among historical scholars the work of Leon- 
tius Mechanicus seems not to have found the recognition 
which it deserves.^® He appears to have been a practical 
man, very active within the field concerning which he wrote, 
and from his remarkably detailed description we are able 
to learn something of the extent to which globe technique 
was carried in the days of the early Eastern Emperors. We 
at any rate learn from him that globes were constructed 
in his workshop, which globes, in all important respects, 
were like those in use at the present time, being, for exam- 
ple, provided with a meridian circle adjusted to move 
through notches in a horizon circle. The information 
given us by Leontius, which here follows, is in free transla- 
tion or paraphrase of his treatise, the whole being con- 
densed. He appears to have been a student of astronomy, 
as represented by Aratus, for he tells us that he had en- 
deavored to construct a globe on which the constellations 
and the circles could be made to conform to the records of 

[ 21 ] 



Terrestrial and Celestial Globes. 

the ancient poet astronomer. He tells us further that he 
constructed this globe for Elpidius, an estimable man of 
letters, and one full of zeal for study; that at the time of 
its construction, though he had the leisure, he did not pre- 
pare a description of the globe, but on the insistence of his 
friends such description he now proposed to write. This 
appears to be the raison d'etre for his treatise. The impor- 
tance of adhering closely to the statements of Aratus he 
insists upon, though admitting that writer's errors, being 
convinced that most of the globes of which one had knowl- 
edge in his day agreed neither with him nor with Ptolemy. 
Leontius first directs attention to Aratus' threefold plan 
in describing the several constellations, in which descrip- 
tion that author speaks first of the relation which part bears 
to part in each; second, of the position of each constella- 
tion relative to the celestial circles, as, for example, to the 
tropics, and third, its position in the heavens relative to 
the constellations in the zodiac. He follows this statement 
with a somewhat lengthy reference to the constellation 
Ophiuchus, or the Serpent, in explanation of the method of 
description. After having the surface of the globe portioned 
out for the representation of the several constellations and 
the important circles, he then proceeds, as he states, to con- 
sider the execution, by which he means representing in 
proper color and outline the several figures, and the mount- 
ing of the globe. Upon a properly constructed support 
should first be placed the horizon circle, through which a 
second circle should be made to pass; this second circle will 
serve as a meridian. These circles, he observes, will enclose 
the ball, all the points of the surface of which should be 
equally distant from the inner surface of the horizon and 
meridian circles, that is, there should be a perfect adjust- 
ment of the enclosing rings and the enclosed ball. The sur- 
face of the sphere should be painted a dark color, as, for 
example, azure. He sets forth, with considerable detail, the 
proper method of procedure in locating the several prin- 

[ :^2 ] 




Fig. 10. Bosco Reale Roman Fresco, ca. 50 A. D. 



Celestial Globes in Antiquity. 

cipal circles, each of which should be graduated. The 
zodiac should be divided into twelve parts, and the con- 
stellations belonging to each of the several parts should be 
designated by name, beginning with Cancer, following this 
with Leo, Virgo, and so on, one after the other. In giving 
the globe a position which actually conforms to the world, 
the pole should be set to the north, and the movement of 
the sky can then be imitated by turning the globe to the 
left. Leontius, by way of summary and definition, at the 
conclusion of his treatise, speaks of a sphere as a solid 
having a surface, from all the points of which, if straight 
perpendicular lines of equal length be drawn, they will 
reach a point within called the center. This center in the 
great sphere of the universe is the earth. The poles of the 
sphere are the extremities of the axis on which it turns. 
The horizon cuts the sphere into two hemispheres, the one 
superior and the other inferior to the earth. The sky, which 
is continually turning, encircles all, one half of it being 
above, the other below the earth, which is as far removed 
from the superior part of the heavens as from the inferior.^^ 



NOTES 

1. Cicero's allusion to Thales, cited p. l6, is probably a reference to a 
tradition. 

2. Wolf, R. Geschichte der Astronomic. Miinchen, 1877, p. 193 ; Gassendi, 
P. Opera Omnia. Leipzig, 1658. Vol. V, p. 375. See statement by Cicero, 
cited below, p. 17. 

3. Aratus' poem bore the title, "Phaenomena." See, for an excellent edi- 
tion of this poem. Prince, C. L. Phenomena. A literal translation of the 
astronomy and meteorology of Aratus. Lewes, 1895. In his "Bibliographical 
remarks," the translator refers to one hundred and nineteen editions of this 
poem, dating from the first printed at Bonn in the year 1474. See also n. 19, 
below. 

4. Passeri, G. B. Atlas Farnesianus Marmoreus insigne vetustatis monu- 
mentum. (In: Gori, A. F. Thesaurus gemmarum antiquarum astriferarum. 
Firenze, 1750. Vol. III.) ; Denza, P. F. Globi cclesti della Specola Vaticana. 
(In: Publicazioni della Specola Vaticana. Torino, 1894. pp. xx-xxiii.) 

[ 23 1 



Terrestrial and Celestial Globes. 

5. Cicero. De Republica. Bk. I, chap. xiv. The citation is from the trans- 
lation by Hardingham, G. G. The Republic. London, 1884. 

6. Lactantius. Institutiones divinae. Bk. II, chap. v. 

7. Pappus. CoUectionum mathematicarum. Edited by Commandino. 
Urbino, 1588. Bk. VII. See especially the introduction. 

8. Hultsch, F. Uber den Himmelsglobus des Archimedes. (In: Zeitschrift 
fiir Mathematik und Physik. Leipzig, 1878. Bd. 22. Hist. Litt. Abteilung, 
p. 106.); Same author. "Archimedes." (In: Real-encyklopadie der klassis- 
chen Alterthumswissenschaft.) 

9. Wolf, op. cit., pp. 122-124. 

10. Wolf, op. cit., pp. 160-166. 

11. Wolf, op. cit., p. 130. 

12. Ptolemy, C. Syntaxis. (Almagest.) Various editions. Bk. VII, chap. 1. 
This work was first printed in Venice, 1496 ; the first Greek text in Basel, 
1538. See Hues, Tractatus de Globis, for an analysis of this work. 

13. Pliny. Historia Naturalis. 

14. Ptolemy, op. cit., Bk. V, chap, i ; Bk. VII, chap, v ; Bk. VIII, chap, 
iii. Ptolemy mentions by name forty-eight constellations, all of which he 
probably obtained from the earlier Greeks. These constellations, the names 
being still retained, are : 



The Zodiac. 








Aries 


Cancer 


Libra 


Capricornus 


Taurus 


Leo 


Scorpio 


Aquarius 


Gemini 


Virgo 


Sagittarius 


Pisces 


The Northern 


Hemisphere. 






Andromeda 


Corona 


Lyra 


Ursa Major 


Aquila 


Cygnus 


Ophiuchus 


Ursa Minor 


Auriga 


Delphinus 


Pegasus 


Sagitta 


Bootes 


Draco 


Perseus 




Cassiopeia 


Equuleus 


Serpens 




Cepheus 


Hercules 


Triangulum 




The Southern 


Constellations. 






Ara 


Cetus 


Crater 


Lupus 


Argo Navis 


Centaurus 


Eridanus 


Orion 


Canis Major 


Corona Australis 


Hydra 


Piscis Australis 


Canis Minor 


Corvus 


Lepus 





15. Visconte, P. E. Nota intorno ad un' antico globo celeste scolpito in 
marmo porino. Roma, 1835 ; Gaedechens, R. Der marmorne Himmelsglobus 
des fiirstlich Waldechschen Antikenkabinettes zu Arolsen. Gottingen, 1862. 

16. Schanz, M. Geschichte der romischen Litteratur bis zum Gesetzge- 
bungswerk des Kaisers Justinian. Miinchen, 1890. See p. 75 for a reference 
to the astrologer Nigidius Figulus. 

17. Coins on which there appears a representation of a globe were 
numerous. Attention may also here be called to the imperial insignia, a 
part of which was a globe, which the emperor was represented, in the 
pictures of the day, as holding in his hand. See King, C. W. Antique Gems 
and Rings. Vol. II, plates xxvi and xxxviii. 

[ 24 ] 



Celestial Globes in Antiquity. 

18. Wcidler, J. F. Historia astronomiae. Vitembergae, 1741. This author 
is of the opinion that Leontius lived in the eighth century, p. 201 ; Susemihl. 
Geschichte der Griechischen Litteratur der alcxandriner Zeit. Leipzig, 1891. 
See Vol. I, p. 294, for a statement of the belief that Leontius lived in the 
seventh century. 

19. Halma, N. Les Phenomenes d'Aratus de Soles, et de Germanicus 
Cesar; avcc les Scholies de Theon, les catasterismes d'Eratosthencs et la 
sphere de Leontius traduit . . . par I'Abbe N. Halma. Gr. avec Fr. Paris, 
1821. pp. 65-73. 



r' 




^ 



" .(^^-^^ 



^ s ^ 



..r^-' 



/ 




[ 25 ] 



Chapter III 
Globes Constructed by the Arabs 

Followers of Ptolemy. — Early armillary spheres. — Interest of the 
Califs in globes and astronomical instruments. — The record 
of the 'Fihrist.' — Ibrahim. — Caissar. — Mohammed ben Helal. — 
Mohammed el Ordhi. — The Paris globes. — Ridhwan Efendi. 

IN passing from the period of classical antiquity to the 
so-called Christian middle ages, attention may first be 
directed to the activities of the Arabs in the field of 
astronomy and geography, in so far as their activities had to 
do with the construction of globes.^ The information which 
we have, concerning their astronomical studies in particular, 
is more detailed than is that which has come down to us 
respecting any other peoples who may have been interested 
in these centuries in the same field of study. 

Doubt may be expressed at the outset that the Arabs 
were interested in the construction of terrestrial globes, since 
with the matter of descriptive geography they appear to 
have been ver}^ little concerned, a fact which their imperfect 
cartographical attempts clearly demonstrate.^ Although the 
theory of a globular earth was early accepted by their 
learned men,^ there is scarcely a trustworthy allusion in 
literature to Arabic terrestrial globes which can be cited. An 
occasional reference, however, has been made by modern 
writers to a globe said to have been constructed for King 
Roger of Sicily. Without citing his authority, Freyheer 
F. V. Zach states that "the oldest terrestrial globe which is 
known was made for King Roger II of Sicily in the twelfth 

[ 26 ] 



Globes Constructed by the Arabs. 

century, and is especially remarkable for the value of the 
metal which was used in its construction, this being 400 
pounds of silver. A knowledge of this globe would not have 
come down to our day had not Edrisi, a famous geographer 
of that time, given an especial description of the same, under 
the title Nothatol mostak (Pleasure of the Soul)."* It is 
probable that the reference here is to a circular disc made by 
Edrisi, or an armillary sphere, but not to a terrestrial globe.^ 

As to Arabic celestial globes, a different situation presents 
itself. It is well known that the inhabitants of Arabia, long 
before the time of Islam, were in the habit of observing the 
stars, many of which, as Dom has noted, they knew and 
designated by names taken from pastoral life, and several 
of which they worshiped as visible gods.® 

Calif al-Mansur, who began his reign in 754 A. D., 
appears to have been the first to show a decided taste for 
astronomical science, and for many centuries following him 
this interest is strikingly pronounced among the people of 
his country.^ Scholars were eagerly attracted to the works 
of Ptolemy, which were many times translated into Arabic, 
and commentaries were written upon his description of the 
names and figures of the several constellations. The only 
alteration they allowed themselves to make in the names of 
the stars was to translate them into their own language, or to 
substitute for those they could not understand other names 
that conveyed an idea to their minds, applicable to the con- 
stellation before the eyes. Andromeda they called "The 
Chained Lady"; Cassiopeia they called "The Lady in the 
Chair" ; Orion received the name "The Giant." They fol- 
lowed in the construction of their armillary spheres and 
celestial globes the description laid down in Ptolemy's 
'Syntaxis,' modifying these astronomical instruments, from 
time to time, as their studies directed them.* 

The list of califs interested in astronomy is a long one, 
both of those who remained in the original homeland, and 
of those who went to the new home in the Iberian Penin- 

[ 27 ] 



Terrestrial and Celestial Globes. 

sula.® The Mohammedan Hulagu Khan, for example, 
erected, about 1264, an observatory in his Mongol capital, 
Maragha, near Tabriz, which long remained a noted center 
for astronomical studies/*^ This observatory, however, was 
but one of a number of similar institutions erected either by 
the Arabs or by the Persians. We are told that the construc- 
tion of astronomical instruments was brought to a high 
degree of perfection by these peoples in the thirteenth cen- 
tury." The names of many of the Arabic astronomers who 
were particularly expert as globe makers are recorded, and 
there were many who wrote on the subject of celestial 
spheres, armillary spheres, and astrolabes, even before the 
tenth century.^" The author of the 'Fihrist,' Ibn Abi Ja'kub 
an-Nadim, tells us that Kurra ben Kamita al-Harrani con- 
structed a globe which he himself had seen." This, he says, 
was made of unbleached material from Dabik, and colored, 
but that the colors were much faded. Ibn Alnabdi, who was 
known as a clever mechanic, mentions two globes which he 
had examined and admired for their excellency of execu- 
tion, in the public library of Kahira, in the year 1043. One 
of these globes, he says, was made of brass, by Ptolemy 
himself; the other, of silver, was constructed by Abul 
Hassan Alsufi, for the immediate use of the king, Adad 
Eddoula." 

As a visible evidence of the interest of the Arabs in 
astronomical science, and of their skill in the construction 
of astronomical instruments, we have preserved to us, be- 
sides numerous astrolabes, no less than seven globes, known 
to have been constructed prior to the year 1600. The oldest 
one extant is now in the possession of the R. Istituto di 
Studi Superior! of Florence, Italy.^^ This fine example of 
the skill which was attained by the instrument makers of 
Valencia, Spain, at one time a flourishing center of Arabic 
culture, appears to date from the second half of the eleventh 
century. According to an inscription on the globe, we learn 
that it was made at Valencia by Ibrahim Ibn Said-as-Sahli, 

[ 28'] 




Fig. 13. Northern Hemisphere of Globe by 
Mohammed ben Helal, 1275. 



^^Vnmgwttg (PfifiqKmmom^ cum cntocerim mtngini^ug ^oDutri . 




Fig. 46. Northern Celestial Hemisphere of Albrecht Diirer. 



Globes Constructed by the Arabs. 

in the year 473 of the Hegira, a date equivalent to 1080 
A. D. This date Professor Meucci finds confirmed by a care- 
ful study of the position of the stars represented on the 
globe. He notes, for example, that the star Regulus had 
been placed at a distance of 16 degrees 40 minutes from 
the sign of Leo. Ptolemy, in the year 140 A. D., gave this 
distance as 2 degrees 30 minutes. According to Albaregnius, 
this star advances about one degree every sixty-six years. 
Since 140 A. D. the star, therefore, would have moved 
14 degrees 10 minutes, which fact would lead astronomers 
to place this star, about 1080, as it appears on the globe. 
The globe is of brass, 20 cm. in diameter, having engraved 
on its surface forty-seven constellations, as given by 
Ptolemy, omitting only the Cup, with 1042 stars, each with 
its respective magnitude indicated. 

A second Arabic celestial globe, which dates from the 
year 1225, has been described in detail in a monograph by 
Assemani, which he issued in the year 1790.^^ This remark- 
ably interesting object belonged, at the time, to the exten- 
sive and celebrated collection of antiquities and curiosities 
of Cardinal Borgia, in Velletri, but may now be found in 
the Museo Nazionale of Naples. It is composed of two 
brass hemispheres, having both horizon and meridian circles, 
the whole resting upon four supporting feet. A Cufic inscrip- 
tion tells us that it was made by Caissar ben Abul Casem 
ben Mosafer Alabiaki Alhanefi, in the year of the Hegira 
622. Caissar probably was an astronomer at the court of 
Cairo, and the Mohammedan date as given, translated into 
Christian reckoning, gives us the year 1225. 

In the year 1829 Dorn published a detailed description 
of an Arabic globe which had been deposited in the museum 
of the Asiatic Society of London (Fig. 13) by Sir John 
Malcolm.^^ It is of brass, has a diameter of 24 cm., and is 
furnished with a substantial mounting. The peculiar fea- 
tures of the figures which represent the several constella- 
tions suggest Persian workmanship. In the vicinity of the 

[ 29 ] 



Terrestrial and Celestial Globes. 

south pole is an inscription in Cufic characters, telling us 
that it was "Made by the most humble in the supreme god, 
Mohammed ben Helal, the astronomer of Monsul, in the 
year of the Hegira 674." This year answers to the year 1275 
of the Christian era, that is, it was constructed about the 
same time as the Borgian globe and that belonging to the 
Dresden collection, briefly described below. Forty-seven 
constellations are represented. On the horizon circle, in their 
respective places, we find engraved the words, "East," 
"West," "South," "North." 

The Arabic globe, to be found in the Mathematical Salon 
of Dresden (Fig. 14), has proved to be one of much inter- 
est and scientific value to students of astronomy .^^ Bode, 
who described it in the year 1808, refers to its remarkably 
fine execution and to its Cuiic inscriptions as being among the 
finest extant specimens of early Arabic writing. The sphere 
is of brass, having a diameter of 14 cm., and is composed of 
two parts, separable on the line of the ecliptic. It has a 
brass horizon circle, on which is engraved at the east the 
word "rising," and at the west the word "setting." It is not 
supplied with a movable meridian circle, but within the 
horizon circle, from north to south, and from east to west, 
there are two brass half circles, of the same diameter as the 
horizon circle and so adjusted as to form one piece with it. 
Through such an arrangement it is made possible to turn 
the globe in any desired direction, one half of it being at all 
times above the horizon. In addition to the above arrange- 
ment, there are two movable half circles, attached at the 
zenith point by a pivot. These half circles are graduated, 
and are movable, making it possible to find, by means of 
them, the declination and right ascension of any star. The 
base, which must be comparatively modern, consists of a 
circular plate, from which rise four turned support columns, 
attached at their upper extremities to the two half circles 
of brass, on which rests the horizon circle. 

The date of construction cannot be far from 1279, which 

[ 30 ] 




Fig. 14. Globe of Mohammed ben Muwajed el Ordhi, 1279, 



Globes Constructed by the Arabs. 

is determinable from the position of the stars engraved 
thereon, relative, for example, to the equinoctial points. 
The maker's name, "Mohammed ben Muwajed el Ordhi," 
appears near the constellation Ursa Major, and is inlaid in 
silver. There appear, very artistically engraved, the lines 
representing the principal circles, the outlines of the several 
constellations, with their names, some of these being inlaid 
with silver, some with gold. The equator and the ecliptic 
are represented on the surface of the sphere, each by two 
engraved parallel lines, and are graduated, the graduation 
in each instance being represented by four short and one 
long line, alternating thus by fives throughout the entire 
three hundred and sixty degrees. The equator is inlaid with 
gold, the other circles with silver. The names of the twelve 
constellations in the zodiac are alternately inlaid with gold 
and silver, while all star names, except as indicated, are 
inlaid with silver. The constellations represented number 
forty-eight, the human figures all being clad, turning the 
front and right face toward the observer. 

The Bibliotheque Nationale of Paris possesses two ancient 
Arabic globes, one of which, neither signed nor dated, has 
been thought to have been constructed in the eleventh cen- 
tury.^^ This was obtained by Jomard, in Egypt, more than 
sixty years ago. It has a diameter of about 19 cm., is fur- 
nished with a horizon circle, which is upheld by four semi- 
circular arms, these, in turn, resting upon a base composed 
of four flat and rather inartistic supports. The engraving 
on the surface of the brass sphere closely resembles that on 
the Dresden globe. A detailed description of this globe has 
not been obtainable. 

A second Paris Arabic globe,^° like the preceding, belongs 
to the Bibliotheque Nationale (Fig. 15). It has a diameter 
of something less than 15 cm., and was constructed by 
Diemat Eddin Mohammed, in the year of the Hegira 981, 
which in the Christian reckoning corresponds to the year 

1573. 

[ 31 ] 



Terrestrial and Celestial Globes. 

The Imperial Library of Petrograd possesses an Arabic 
globe, constructed in the year 1701.^^ It is described by 
Dom as a fine example of the globe maker's art, closely 
resembling, in its general features, the Arabic globe in the 
collection of the Royal Asiatic Society of London. It has a 
diameter of about 19 cm., rests upon an ornamental tripod 
base, and is adjusted to turn within a brass circle, which cir- 
cle is fitted into a larger one, so marked and graduated as to 
represent four concentric circles. The first or inner circle, 
representing the horizon, is divided into thirty-six divisions 
of ten degrees each; on the second circle the degrees are 
indicated by letters; on the third circle appear the twelve 
signs of the zodiac and the four principal directions, east, 
west, north, south; the fourth circle is divided into thirty- 
six parts, formed by the extension of the lines which divide 
the first, or horizon circle, into thirty-six parts. On the last 
circle the names of one hundred and four cities and countries 
are given. Not far from the north pole is an inscription 
which gives us the name of the maker and the date of con- 
struction. Therein we read that it was completed in the year 
1113 of the flight of the Prophet, or in the year 1701 of 
Christian reckoning, by Ridhwan, for Maulana Hassan 
Efendi, who, toward the end of the seventeenth century, 
was director of the astronomical observatory of Cairo, and 
gave substantial encouragement to makers of globes and of 
other instruments employed in astronomical studies. The 
equator, the ecliptic, and the parallels are represented, the 
first two by parallel circles which are crossed or joined by 
lines dividing them into seventy-two principal parts, each 
part being again subdivided into fifths. The close resem- 
blance of this example to the earlier known Arabic globes 
suggests that there was little, if any, progress among those 
peoples in the art of globe construction since the eleventh 
century. 



[ 32 ] 



Globes Constructed by the Arabs. 
NOTES 

1. Delambre, J. B. J. Histoire de I'Astronomie ancienne. Paris, 1817. 
See Vol. I, pp. 372, 516, containing references to globes, celestial and terres- 
trial, constructed in India and in China about the years 450 and 724 A. D. 

2. Peschel, O. Geschichte der Erdkunde bis auf C. Ritter und A. V. 
Humboldt. Berlin, 1877. See pp. 145-160, wherein reference is made to their 
lack of interest in descriptive geography ; Beazley. Dawn of Modern Geog- 
raphy. Vol. I, chap. vii. 

3. Giinther, S. Studien zur Geschichte der mathematischen und physika- 
lischen Geographie. Halle, 1877. Heft 2 ; Ibn Abi Ja'kub an-Nadim. Katab 
al-Fihrist (Book of Records), ed. by Gustav Flugel. Leipzig, 1871-1872. 
2 vols. The greater part of this Arabic work was written about the year 
987 A. D. Edrisi states it as "the opinion of philosophers, of illustrious 
savants, and of skilled observers in the knowledge of celestial bodies, that 
the earth is round as a sphere." See Edrisi, Geography, tr. de I'Arabe en 
frangais par P. Amedee Jaubert. (In: Receuel de voyages et de memoires. 
Paris, 1830. 2 vols.) Vol. I, p. 1. 

4. Zach, F. V. Monatliche Korrespondenz. Gotha, 1806. Vol. XIII, p. 
157; Suter, H. Das Mathematiker-Verzeichniss im Fihrist. (In: Zeitschrift 
fiir Mathematik un Physik. Leipzig, 1892.) This work contains many ref- 
erences to distinguished oriental scholars who treated in their writings the 
doctrine of the sphere, the astrolabe, and the armillary sphere. 

5. Wittstein, T. Historisch-astronomische Fragmente aus der arabischen 
Litteratur. (In: Abhandlungcn zur Geschichte der Mathematik. Leipzig, 
1892. Heft 6, p. 98.) The opinion is here expressed that a terrestrial globe 
by Edrisi never existed ; Hadradauer, C. v. Die Feldzeugmeister Ritter von 
Hauslabische Kartensammlung. (In : Mitteilungen der K. K. Geographische 
Gesellschaft zu Wien. Wien, 1886. Neue Folge 19, pp. 387-388.) The 
opinion is expressed that Edrisi constructed a planisphere and not a globe. 
Amari, M. Storia dei Musulmani di Sicilia. Firenze, 1868. pp. 453 ff., 669 ff. 

6. Dorn, B. Description of an Arabic celestial globe. (In: Transactions 
of the Royal Asiatic Society. London, 1829. Vol. II, pp. 371-392.) 

7. Dorn, op. cit. 

8. Dorn, op. cit. 

9. See the list as given in the Fihrist, referred to in note 4. Naser ben 
Mohamed Abul Gioush, King of Castile, is referred to as having been 
much interested in astronomy, in which science he acquired such pro- 
ficiency as to enable him to construct a number of very useful astronomical 
instruments. 

10. Lelewel, J. Geographie du moyen age. Bruxelles, 1857. Vol. I, p. 116; 
Jourdain. Memoire sur I'observatoire de Meragah. Paris, 1810. It is well 
known that under the direction of Nasr-Eddin, who was called to the 
charge of this observatory by Hulagu Khan, astronomical instruments were 
constructed. 

11. Dorn, op. cit. 

12. See the Fihrist, also a list as given by Dorn. 

13. Dorn, op. cit. 

14. Dorn, op. cit. 

15. Meucci, F. II globo celeste arabico del seculo XI esistente nel 
Gabinetto degli strumenti antichi di Astronomia, Mathematica nel R. Isti- 
tuto di Studi Superiori. Firenze, 1878. 

[ 33 ] 



Terrestrial and Celestial Globes. 

16. Assemani, S. Globus coelestis cufico-arabicus Veliterani Musei Bor- 
giani. Patavii, 1790. 

17. Dorn, op. cit. 

18. Beigel, W. Nachricht von einer Arabischen Himmelskugel mit 
Kufischer Schrift, welche im kurfiirstlichen Mathematischen Salon zu 
Dresden aufbewahrt wird. (In : Bodes Astronomisches Jahrbuch f iir das 
Jahr 1808. Berlin, 1808. pp. 97 ff.) ; Drechsler, A. Der arabische Himmels- 
globus angefertigt 1279 zu Meragha. Dresden, 1873. 

19. Sedillot, L. A. Memoire sur les instruments astronomiques des Arabes. 
Paris, 1841. pp. il7ff. ; same author. Materiaux pour servir a I'histoire 
comparee des sciences mathematiques chez les grecs et les orientaux. Paris, 
1845. Vol. I, pp. 334 ff.; Jomard, M. Monuments de la Geographic. Paris, 
1854. It is very doubtful that a date so early should be given to this globe. 

20. Information courteously given by M. L. Vallee. 

21. Dorn, B. Drei in der kaiserlichen ofFentlichen Bibliothek zu St. Peters- 
burg befindliche astronomische Instrumente mit arabischen Inschriften. (In: 
Memoires de I'Academie Imperiale des Sciences de St. Petersbourg. St. 
Petersbourg, 1865. VII«' serie. Tome IX, No. i.) 




[ 34 1 




Fig. 15. Globe of Diemat Eddin Mohammed, 1573. 




CO 



o 
'.2 



O 

s 



< 






Chapter IV 

Terrestrial and Celestial Globes in the 
Christian Middle Ages 

General attitude of the period toward the theories of the Greeks and 
the Romans. — Scripture statements as sources of information. — 
Inclination of certain early writers to accept the doctrine of a 
spherical earth. — The particular attitude of Pope Sylvester 11. — 
The asserted interest of Emperor Frederick II in scientific 
studies. — Alfonso the Wise and the Alfonsian tables. — Interest- 
ing allusions in Alfonso's work to globes and globe construc- 
tion. — Giovanni Campano of Novara and the statements in his 
'Tractatis de sphera solida.' — The attitude of Albertus Magnus, 
Sacrobosco, Roger Bacon, Vincent of Beauvais, Dante. 

FOR many centuries following the fall of the Western 
Roman Empire, there appears to have been in Chris- 
tian Europe but little interest in the fundamental 
principles of geographical or astronomical science. The 
theories of the Greeks and the Romans respecting a spheri- 
cal earth and a spherical firmament encompassing it, in 
illustration of which they had constructed globes, were not 
entirely forgotten, but such theories in general were con- 
sidered to be valueless, hindrances rather than helps to the 
theological beliefs of the new Christian era.^ 

Though the early Church Fathers were inclined to reject 
the idea of a globular earth,^ there were not a few among 
them who found the theory of a circular earth an acceptable 
one. The latter, it is true, was an early Greek belief, re- 
ferred to above as having been entertained in Homer's day, 

[ 35 ] 



Terrestrial and Celestial Globes. 

and as having been passed down to succeeding centuries, but 
Christian writers did not find in the fact of its pagan origin 
a particular argument for accepting it; on the contrary, the 
Bible was held by many to be the fountain of all knowl- 
edge, and a sure guide no less in the solution of problems 
pertaining to the physical sciences than in the solution of 
problems pertaining to faith and doctrine. What was con- 
tained in the Scriptures found a more ready acceptance than 
what was to be found in pagan writers.^ Isaiah's statement, 




Fig. 16. The Universe according to 

Cosmas Indicopleustes, 

Sixth Century. 



"It is He that sitteth upon the circle of the earth," was re- 
garded as one altogether adequate on which to found a 
theory of the form of the earth, and it was accepted by such 
biblical interpreters as Lactantius, Cosmas Indicopleustes 
(Figs. 16, 17), Diodorus of Tarsus, Chrysostom, Severian 
of Gabala, by those who were known as the Syrians, by 
Procopius and Decuil.* Men, however, such as Basil, 
Gregory of Nyssa, and Philoponos inclined strongly toward 
the Aristotelian doctrine of a spherical earth.° Isidore of 
Seville appears to have been a supporter of the spherical 

[ 36 ] 



Globes in the Christian Middle Ages. 

doctrine,® as was also the Venerable Bede, who, in his 'De 
natura rerum,' upholds the doctrine of a spherical earth on 
practically the same grounds as those advanced by Aristotle.' 
In illustration of the doctrine of a circular earth, terres- 
trial globes certainly could not have been thought of as 
having any practical value. With a rejection of the spheri- 
cal theory of the ancients very naturally went the rejection 
of their globes. 




Fig. 17. Cosmas' Illustration Confuting 
the Existence of Antipodal Peoples. 



The circular or Homeric theory, as noted above, had its 
supporters, even to the close of the middle ages, but the 
inclination is more or less marked, even as early as the 
seventh century, to accept again the doctrine of a spherical 
earth. It seems to have come into prominence again with the 
growing belief in the importance of the place of the earth in 
the universe. After the eighth century this theory may be 
said to have had a very general acceptance by those who, 

[ 37 ] 



Terrestrial and Celestial Globes. 

Faust-like, felt a desire for a larger freedom from theological 
restraint than the church encouraged. (Figs. 18, 19.) 

Attention has been called to the attitude of the writings 
of the Anglo-Saxon Church Father, the Venerable Bede. 
Although we have no unquestionable proof that Bede, or 
Alcuin,^ who was greatly influenced by him, insisted on the 
use of globes in geographical instruction, there is good 
reason for thinking these scholars would have inclined to 
encourage their use. The monastic schools, which, in the 
methods of instruction, rested upon the plan wrought out 
by Alcuin for the Palace School of Charles the Great, con- 
sidered globes to be apparatus of great educational value. 
Professor Giinther is inclined to think it probable that celes- 
tial globes were used throughout the early centuries of this 
mediaeval period in the better schools, though no positive 
statement to that effect can be cited.^ 

We know that an exact knowledge of the movements of 
the sun, of the moon, and of the constellations was consid- 
ered to be of first importance for the priesthood in the 
middle ages, since it was through a knowledge of their 
movements that the times for the observance of the rigid 
church rules were fixed.^° The acquisition of such knowledge 
could best be secured through the use of the celestial globe." 
We learn from Notker Labeo (950-1022), one of the most 
distinguished teachers of the monastic school of St. Gallen, 
that he made use of such globes for astro-geographical 
instruction, which, in their important features, were like 
our modern celestial globes, for he tells us "they were sup- 
plied with all necessary parts." It seems evident that those 
of which he made use could be adjusted to every desired 
altitude of the pole.^^ 

One of the most distinguished scholars of the tenth cen- 
tury was Bishop Gerbert (ca. 940-1003), later Pope Syl 
vester II, of whose learning we possess reliable evidence 
His astronomical knowledge so astonished his contempora- 
ries that he was thought to be a necromancer and was 

[ 38] 



13 






lll<:*f HIKLS '- IlHlilJI IK) f» Wt 




Fig. 18. Hereford World Map, ca. 1283. 




Fig. 19. The Earth Pictured as a Sphere 
by Nicolas d'Oresme, 1377. , 



Globes in the Christian Middle Ages. 

accused of being in league with the evil one/* He was a 
diligent student of the literature of antiquity, which had 
survived to his day, especially surpassing all others, it is 
reported, in his acquaintance with the learning of pagan 
Rome. In the instruction which he gave in astronomical 
science he made use of various instruments, to the end that 
his pupils might the better understand the subject, among 
which instruments were celestial globes and armillary 
spheres. These were a source of much wonderment to his 
contemporaries. It is said that one of these instruments was 
so skilfully constructed that even the untrained by its use, 
having one constellation pointed out, would be able to locate 
all others "with the aid of a globe and without the aid of 
a teacher."^^ In a letter to the monastic teacher Constan- 
tius, with whom Gerbert stood in the friendliest relations 
for many years at Rheims, he refers to the construction of 
a celestial globe, and in a more detailed manner he makes 
mention of this when writing to Remigius of Trier. In four 
of his letters to this last named prelate, Gerbert touches 
upon his purpose to construct a globe, but on account of 
the added duties which were his, occasioned by the death 
of Archbishop Adalbero, he seems not to have been able to 
complete his work. He expresses himself, in the third one 
of these letters, as hopeful that a favorable time might yet 
come for him to take up the plan, but the increasing oppo- 
sition of his enemies left him no leisure for scientific labors 
of this character, and it does not appear that he turned his 
attention again to globe making." 

The thirteenth century furnishes us with the names of 
two distinguished princes who were especially active in ad- 
vancing scientific studies of their times. One of these was 
the Hohenstaufen Frederick II, concerning whom we are 
informed that he directed a learned Arabian, who sojourned 
at his court, to construct for him a celestial globe of gold 
on which the stars were to be represented by pearls.^^ We 
are further told that as an outcome of his friendly rela- 

[ 39 ] 



Terrestrial and Celestial Globes. 

tions with the rulers of the East, the Sultan of Egypt sent 
to him an astronomical tent of wonderful construction. In 
this the sun and the moon were represented and by means 
of a skilfully constructed mechanism they were made to 
rise and set, marking out the hours of day and night." 

As a ruler of like intellectual and scientific interests, the 
Castilian, Alfonso X, who lived in the thirteenth century, 
known as "The Wise" and as "The Astronomer," deserves 
to be especially mentioned. By his order an elaborate astro- 
nomical work was prepared, which holds a place of first 
importance among mediaeval productions of its character. 
In this work the construction of globes is discussed in a very 
detailed manner, mention being made of every feature re- 
garded as belonging to a properly constructed celestial 
sphere. So significant are certain chapters of this work for 
the history of globes and of globe making that a free trans- 
lation is here given of that part relating to materials of 
which globes may be constructed.^" "A sphere may be made 
of many materials," says the author, "as of gold, or silver, 
or copper, or brass, or iron, or lead, or tin, or of a combina- 
tion of these metals ; or they may be made of stone, or clay, 
or wood. They may also be made of leather, of cloth, of 
parchment in many layers, and of many other materials 
which men employ when they wish to give an exhibition of 
their skill. Those, however, who have carefully considered 
these things, have decided that there is nothing more suit- 
able than wood and for the following reasons. If the globe 
should be made of gold, only a very rich man would be able 
to possess it; furthermore it would be very heavy. If it 
should be made of thin sheets of gold it could be easily 
indented and would not long remain a perfect sphere. If it 
should be made small, that which was represented thereon 
would not appear distinct. The same thing may be said of 
silver, although it is a metal stronger than gold, as it is 
likewise harder, and therefore is not so easily indented. 
Copper is a metal harder than either silver or gold, but is 

[ 40 ] 



Globes in the Christian Middle Ages. 

so dry that it can not be easily fashioned into a globe, which 
should always be well made. Brass, which is like dark 
colored copper, may be more easily fashioned, because it is 
more malleable than copper, and is stronger than either gold 
or silver. If, however, a globe made of this material should 
be thin it might easily lose its shape, and if thick it would 
be very heavy. Of all metals, however, this is the one most 
suitable for use in making spheres, as it is the one most 
commonly employed. A globe of iron would be very difficult 
to make and would be very heavy, and since the rust would 
have to be removed from it very frequently, there would be 
much danger of destroying the figures. A globe of tin, if 
made of a thin sheet, could be easily indented, and would 
be very heavy if the sheet of which made were thick. Lead, 
if thin, would offer less resistance to injury than tin, and 
is a material much heavier. Furthermore, as lead is inclined 
to turn black, the figures and the stars represented on a 
globe of this material would soon become so discolored as 
to be no longer visible. There is no way by which it can be 
cleaned without wiping out the figures. Although the metal 
could be combined to form that material of which water 
jugs and buckets are made it would be so fragile as to break 
like glass. Clay, which is also used for the making of water 
jugs, mortars, and fountains, is not suitable for globes, be- 
cause if thin it would break easily, and if thick it would be 
very heavy. Moreover this material when prepared must be 
baked in a kiln which fact renders it unsuitable for use in 
making spheres. A globe should not be made of stone, since 
if this were transparent the figures could not easily be seen, 
and such material would be very heavy. It would not be 
fitting to make so noble an object as a sphere of the material 
of which jars are made. Leather would not be suitable, 
though it might be fashioned into a permanent spherical 
shape. Such material shrinks in hot weather or when brought 
near a fire. Cloth would not be suitable, though it were made 
very strong, since heat would cause it to shrink, and mois- 

[ 41 1 



Terrestrial and Celestial Globes. 

ture would cause it to lose its shape, and this same thing 
may be said of parchment. A sphere of wood is strong and 
is of reasonable weight and may be made in the manner 
which we shall set forth," The original manuscript of this 
work is profusely illustrated, including representations of 
the ligures of the several constellations (Fig. 20). 

In the latter part of the thirteenth century the mathe- 
matician, Giovanni Campano, a native of Novara and 
it appears a particular friend and supporter of Pope Urban 
IV, won distinction for his scholarly attainments in the field 
of astronomy."'^ In addition to his work, titled, 'Teorica 
planetarum,' wherein he comments on the subject of 
astronomy and geometry, and makes copious references to 
the Greek geometrician Euclid, whose works he had trans- 
lated into Latin, he prepared a treatise which he called 
'Tractatis de sphera solida.' In the prologue to this work, 
after noting that the number of astronomical instruments 
which have been constructed is large, he states that in the 
main they agree in their representation of the movements 
of the heavens, adding that as the heavens are spherical, 
spherical instruments are to be preferred. In his first chap- 
ter, after alluding to the astronomical instruments described 
by Ptolemy, he proceeds to treat of the composition of solid 
spheres, which he says may be made of metal, or better, of 
wood. He gives rules for making the same by the use of the 
lathe, and notes in conclusion it is well to make the sphere 
hollow in order to lighten the weight. In the following 
chapters he treats of the inscription of the circles of the 
sphere, of the constmction of the several rings employed 
in the mounting, such as the horizon and the meridian cir- 
cles, and gives consideration to the representation of the 
several constellations on the surface of the ball. In the 
second part of his treatise he gives instruction as to how 
to use the instrument in the solution of astronomical 
problems. 

There appears to be only the slightest evidence that Cam- 

[ 42 ] 



"^'.-T^T'. ■ 











Fig. 20. The Constellation Taurus. 



Globes in the Christian Middle Ages. 

pano was acquainted with the work of Alfonso. His pres- 
entation of the subject, in all probability, was altogether 
independent of a knowledge of the Alfonsian tables. It is 
interesting to observe that in the day when astrology was 
in great favor in the universities of Europe, Campano con- 
tinued to be interested in genuine astronomical science. 

x\lbertus Magnus, in his 'Liber de coelo et mondo,'"^ de- 
votes an entire chapter to a theoretical consideration of 
gravitation, asserting that the earth is spherical (Spherica 
sive orbicularis necessario), and proceeds to a demonstra- 
tion of the theor}% in which he practically follows the 
arguments of Aristotle, that ever}' particle of the earth away 
from the center is continually in movement seeking that 
center, the result being the formation of a spherical body. 
He advances further, as argument in proof of a spherical 
earth, that the shadow it casts in an eclipse of the moon is 
circular. 

Sacrobosco (John of Holywood or Halifax) (fl. 1230)," 
who was active in the first half of the thirteenth centur}', 
much of the time as professor of mathematics in the Uni- 
versity of Paris, prepared a work bearing the title, 'Tracta- 
tus de sphaera,' being in part a summary of the 'Almagest' 
of Ptolemy. In this work the theory of a spherical earth is 
supported in much the same manner as was done by Cam- 
pano. The 'Tractatus' proved to be one of the most impor- 
tant quasi scientific geographical and astronomical text- 
books of the later middle ages, being frequently copied, and 
frequently printed after the invention of that art."^ 

Further reference might be made to a belief in a spherical 
earth, as held by Roger Bacon (1214-1294),"^ by Thomas 
Aquinas (1225-1274)," by Vincent of Beauvais (1190- 
1264),"*' by Dante (1265-1321),'' and still others of the 
thirteenth, fourteenth, and fifteenth centuries. It should, 
however, be stated that nowhere in the works of these 
authors does there appear a reference to the construction 
of terrestrial globes, and only incidentally the implication 

[ 43 ] 



Terrestrial and Celestial Globes. 

that they knew of or approved the construction of celestial 
globes. 

The increasing interest in geography and in astronomy in 
the closing years of the middle ages led most naturally, in 
time, to much activity in globe construction, and to this fact 
attention is directed in the following chapter. 



NOTES 

1. Beazley's monumental work, previously cited, considers the geographi- 
cal knowledge of the Christian middle ages, from the closing years of the 
Western Roman Empire to the early years of the fifteenth century. See 
especially Vol. I, chap, vi ; Vol. II, chap, vi ; Vol. Ill, chap. vi. Marinelli, 
G. Die Erdkunde bci den Kirchvatern. Leipzig, 1884; Kretschmer, K. Die 
physischc Erdkunde im christilichen Mittclalter. Wien, 1889; Cosmas Indi- 
copleustes. Christian Topography, tr. by J. M. McCrindle. (In : Hakluyt 
Society Publications. London, 1897) ; Giinther, S. Die kosmographlschen 
Anschauung des Mittelalters. (In : Deutsch. Rundschau fiir Geographic und 
Statistik. Vol. IV, pp. 135 ff.) 

2. Zocklcr, O. Gcschichte der Bcziehungen zwischen Theologie und 
Naturwissenschaft. Giitersloh, 1877. pp. 122 ff.; White, A. D. A History of 
the Warfare of Science with Theology in Christendom. New York, 1895- 
1897. See especially chaps, ii-iii. See also references in note 1. 

3. Isaiah, chap, xl, v. 20; Ezechiel, chap, xxxviii, v. 12; Job, chap, xxvi, 
V. 7, 10; Psalm cxxxvi, 6. 

4. Note summary and citations in Kretschmer, op. cit. 

5. Note citations in Kretschmer, op. cit. 

6. See his works, Etymologia, 3, 24-71, and De natura rerum, 9-27. 
Brehaut, E. An Encyclopedist of the Dark Ages. Isidore of Seville. (In : 
Studies in History, Economics and Public Law, Columbia University. New 
York, 1912. Vol. xlviii. No. 1.) 

It must be admitted that there is considerable incoherence in the views 
of the world as expressed by the great majority of the mediaeval writers. 
One not infrequently lands in confusion when undertaking an investigation 
of their opinions. 

7. Beda. Opuscula scientifica. Ed. by J. A. Giles. London, 1843. See 
De natura rerum, chap, xlvi, titled, "Terram globo similem." 

8. West, A. F. Alcuin and the Rise of Christian Schools. New York, 
1892; Mullinger, J. B. The Schools of Charles the Great. New York, 1911 ; 
Fellner, R. Kompendium der Naturwissenschaften an der Schule zu Fulda. 
Berlin, 1879. 

The real founder of the monastic schools was Hrabanus Maurus, who 
was a pupil of Alcuin, and who carried to the monastery of Fulda that 
Englishman's love for the Quadrivium. 

9. Giinther, S.-Fiorini, M. Erd- und Himmelsgloben. Leipzig, 1895. p. 19. 

10. Specht, F. A. Geschichte des Unterrichtswesen in Deutschland von 

[ 44 ] 



Globes in the Christian Middle Ages. 

den altestcn Zeiten bis zur Mitte des XIII Jahrhundcrts. Stuttgart, 1885. 
pp. 127 ff. 

11. Giinther-Fiorini, op. cit., p. 18, n. 4, refers to a star map made in the 
monastery of St. Emeran in the early fifteenth century, and now belonging 
to the K. K. Hof- und Staats-Bibliothek of Munich, which was intended 
for a "Compositio sperc solido." 

12. Arx, J. V. Geschichte des Kantons St. Gallen. St. Gallen, 1810. p. 265. 

13. Biidinger, M. Ubcr Gerbcrts wissenschaftliche und politische Stellung. 
Marburg, 1851 ; Werner, K. Gerbert von Aurillac, die Kirche und die 
Wissenschaft seiner Zeit. Wicn, 1878. 

14. Biidinger, op. cit., p. 38. 

15. Specht, op. cit., pp. 138-139; Dummler, E. Ekkehart IV von St. Gallen. 
(In: Zeitschrift fiir deutschcs Altertum. Berlin, 1869. Neue Folge, Vol. 2, 
p. 23.) The implication in the last named work seems to be that globes 
were used in many of the schools of this early day. Mabillon, J. Veterum 
analectorum. Paris, 1676. Tom. 2, p. 212. The statement here made clearly 
refers to the use of globes in astronomical instruction. 

16. Gerbert, Letters of, 983-997, publiees avec une introduction et des 
notes par J. Havet. Paris, 1889. See especially Nos. 134, 148, 152, 162. 
Gerbert refers, in these letters to Remigius, to a globe which he intended to 
construct. 

17. Lelewel, op. cit.. Vol. II, p. 2. 

18. Raumer, F. v. Geschichte dcr Hohenstaufen und ihre Zeit. Leipzig, 
1878. Vol. Ill, p. 493. This astronomical tent has sometimes been referred 
to as a globe. 

19. Libros del Saber dc Astronomia del Rey D. Alfonso X de Castilla. 
Compilados, anotados y comentados por Don Manuel Rico y Sinobas. 
Madrid, 1863-1867. See especially Vol. I, pp. 153 flF. 

20. Enciclopedia Universal illustrada, "Campano" ; Tiraboschi, G. Storia 
della letteratura italiana. Roma, 1782-1785. Tom. IV, lib. ii, cap. ii, §v ; 
Fiorini. Sfere terrestri. pp. 40-56. 

There are numerous manuscripts of Campano to be found in the Uni- 
versity Library of Bologna, in the Ambrosiana of Milan, and in the Library 
of San Marco in Venice, Fiorini refers to a number of writers who may 
be said to have followed and in part copied Campano. 

21. Albertus Magnus. Libej de coelo et mundo. Lib. II 4, c. 9. For a short 
biography of Albertus see Encyclopaedia Britannica, "Albertus Magnus." 

22. Giinther, S. Geschichte des mathematischen Unterrichtcs, im deutschen 
Mittelalter bis zum Jahre 1525. Berlin, 1887. pp. 184 fF. 

23. Catalogue of Printed Books in the British Museum contains a list 
of more than fifty editions, the first being printed in the year 1472. 

24. Biographies arc numerous. See Dictionary of National Biography, 
"Roger Bacon," with bibliographical list. Sec Bacon's Opus Magnus, lib. I, 
152-1535 "necesse est vero mundum extra habere figuram spericam . . ." ; 
also lib. IV, in which he treats of the form of the earth. 

25. See for a short biography Nouvelle biographic. Paris, 1866. "Thomas 
d'Aquin." 

26. Bourgeat, J. B. Etudes sur Vincent de Beauvais. Paris, 1856. 

27. Biographies of Dante are numerous. See his Purgatorio, Canto 
XXVII, lines 1-4, referring to midday on the Ganges when it is dawn in 
Jerusalem ; see also his Aqua et Terra, wherein he gives expression to a 
belief in the spherical theory. 

[ 45 ] 



Chapter V 

Globes Constructed in the Early Years of 
the Great Geographical Discoveries 

Increasing interest in geographical discovery and maritime enterprise 
in the fourteenth and the fifteenth century. — Awakened interest 
in globe construction. — Martin Behaim and his globe of the 
year 1492. — The Laon globe. — Christopher and Bartholomew 
Columbus and their interest in globes. — John Cabot and his 
globe. — Globes of Johannes Stoffler. — Conrad Celtes and his part 
in arousing an interest in globes. 

THE fourteenth century witnessed among the peo- 
ples of Italy and of the Iberian coast regions a 
rapidly rising interest in maritime enterprise. The 
expansion of Europe, which for two centuries had been over- 
land and eastward, was now becoming oceanic, with an 
outlook southward and westward into the Atlantic. In the 
fifteenth century, under the inspiration of Prince Henry 
the Navigator, the Portuguese were feeling their way down 
the coast of Africa, adding year by year to their knowledge 
of hitherto unknown lands ;^ the Atlantic island groups, one 
by one, were discovered or rediscovered,^ and in 1487 
Bartholomew Diaz turned the Cape of Good Hope and 
opened a new way to the Indies of the East.^ Through all 
these enterprises a new and vigorous stimulus was given to 
interest in geographical studies, just as an awakening had 
followed the disclosure of the riches of the East by Carpini, 
Rubruquis, and especially by Marco Polo in the earlier 
post-crusading years.* 

[46 ] 




Fig. 21. Globe of Martin Behaim, 1492. 



Early Years of Great Geographical Discoveries. 

Out of this lively interest in all that pertained to the 
expansion of knowledge concerning the various regions of 
the earth came a desire for better map making,^ and atten- 
tion was again intelligently directed to the construction of 
terrestrial globes on which to represent the most recently 
discovered seas, islands, and continental coasts. 

It was Martin Behaim of Niirnberg (1459-1507),^ who, 
in so far as we have knowledge, constructed one of the first 
modem terrestrial globes (Fig. 21), and it may, indeed, be 
said of his "Erdapfel," as he called it, that it is the oldest 
terrestrial globe extant. Behaim (Fig. 22) belonged to the 
merchant class of a flourishing South German city. He took 
advantage of the opportunities which were offered him for 
travel, though it is hardly probable that he is entitled to 
that renown as an African coast explorer with which certain 
of his biographers have attempted to crown him, nor does 
it appear that he is entitled to a very prominent place among 
the men famed in his day for their astronomical and nauti- 
cal knowledge. It was doubtless for reasons primarily com- 
mercial that he first found his way to Portugal, where, 
shortly after his arrival, probably in the year 1484, he was 
honored by King John with an appointment as a member 
of a nautical or mathematical Junta. During his earlier 
years in Portugal he was connected with one or more expe- 
ditions down the coast of Africa, was knighted by the king, 
presumably for his services, and made his home for some 
years on the island of Fayal. In the year 1490 he returned 
for a visit to his native city, Niirnberg, and there is reason 
for believing that on this occasion he was received with 
much honor by his fellow townsmen. It was the suggestion 
of George Holzschuher, member of the City Council, and 
himself somewhat famed as a traveler, that eventually 
brought special renown to our globe maker, for he it was 
who proposed to his colleagues of the Council that Martin 
Behaim should be requested to undertake the construction 
of a globe on which the recent Portuguese and other dis- 

[ 47 1 



Terrestrial and Celestial Globes. 

coveries should be represented. From a record on the globe 
itself, placed within the Antarctic circle, we learn that the 
work was undertaken on the authority of three distinguished 
citizens, Gabriel Nutzel, Paul Volckamer, and Nikolaus 
Groland/ It is an interesting fact that we are able to follow 
in detail the construction of the globe through its several 
stages, as the accounts of George Holzschuher, to whom 
was entrusted the general supervision of the work, have been 
preserved.^ From his report, presented at the conclusion of 
the undertaking, we learn the names of those who partici- 
pated in the production of the globe; we learn the amount 
received by each for his labors, and that the total cost to 
the city for the completed product was something less than 
seventy-five dollars. Information is given therein as to the 
division of the work; how the spherical shell was prepared; 
how the vellum covering was fitted to the sphere; how the 
rings and the globe supports were supplied; finally, how the 
artist, Glockenthon, transferred the map to the prepared 
surface of the ball and added to the same the several 
miniatures, illustrating in rich color a variety of subjects. 

The globe, which still belongs to the Behaim family, was 
removed in the year 1907, by Baron W. Behaim, from his 
residence in Egedienplatz, Niirnberg, to the Germanic 
Museum, where it ma}^ now be found. It originally stood 
on a tripod base of wood, but this was later replaced by 
one of iron. The iron meridian circle is doubtless the work 
of Behaim himself, while its brass horizon circle probably 
dates from the year 1510.^ 

In his scholarly work Ravenstein thus describes this re- 
markable monument of a period in which there was a rapid 
expansion of geographical knowledge. "The globe has a 
circumference of 1595 mm., consequently a diameter of 
507 mm. or 20 inches. Only two great circles are laid down 
upon it, viz., the equator, divided into 360 degrees, and 
the ecliptic studded with the signs of the zodiac. The 
Tropics, the Arctic and the Antarctic circles are likewise 

[ 48] 




3-Kirt'^^ 












Sy 



/• 



Fig. 22. Portrait of Martin Behaim. 



Early Years of Great Geographical Discoveries. 

shown. The only meridian is drawn from pole to pole 80 
degrees to the west of Lisbon. The sea is colored a dark 
blue, the land a bright brown or buff with patches of green 
and silver, representing forests and regions supposed to be 
buried beneath perennial ice and snow. Perhaps the most 
attractive feature of the globe consists of 1 1 1 miniatures, 
for which we are indebted to Glockenthon's clever pencil. 
The vacant space within the Antarctic circle is occupied by 
a fine design of the Niirnberg eagle with the virgin's head, 
associated with which are the arms of the three chief cap- 
tains by whose authority the globe was made. . . . There 
are, in addition, 48 flags (including 10 of Portugal) and 
15 coats of arms, all of them showing heraldic colors. The 
miniatures represent a variety of subjects. Forty-eight of 
them show us kings seated within tents or upon thrones; 
full-length portraits are given of four Saints (St. Peter, St. 
Paul, St. Matthew, and St. lago), of missionaries instruct- 
ing natives, and of travelers. Eleven vessels float upon the 
sea, which is peopled by fishes, seals, sea-lions, sea-cows, 
sea-horses, sea-serpents, mermen, and a mermaid. The land 
animals include elephants, leopards, bears, camels, ostriches, 
parrots, and serpents. . . . The only fabulous beings which 
are represented among the miniatures are a merman and a 
mermaid, near the Cape Verde Islands, and two Sciapodes 
in central South Africa, but syrens, satyrs, and men with 
dogs' heads are referred to in some of the legends. Nor do 
we meet with the 'ludei clausi,' or with a 'garden of 
Eden,' still believed in by Columbus. . . . The globe is 
crowded with over 1100 place names and numerous legends 
in black, red, gold, or silver."^" 

The legends, in the South German dialect of the period, 
are very numerous (Fig. 23), and are of great interest to 
students of history and of historical geography. The fol- 
lowing will serve to indicate the character of Behaim's 
numerous legends. "Nach cristi unsers lieben hern gepurt 
1431 jar also regiert in portugal j infante don pedro wurden 

[ 49 ] 



Terrestrial and Celestial Globes. 

nach notlusse zegericht zway schiff auf 2 Jar gespeisst von 
den hochgeburnen Jnfanten don heinrichen dess koniks aufs 
portogalli bruder zu erfahren wass do wer hinder sanct 
Jacob finisterre weliche schiff also geriist segelten alweg 
nach den untergang der sonnen bey 500 teutsche meilen 
zuletst wurden sy ains tags ansichtig dies 10 inseln und 
aufs landt trettendt funden nichts dann wildness und vogel 
die waren so zam dass sy vor niemandt flohen aber von 
leutten oder thieren mit vier fiissen war von wege der wild- 
nuss keins darkhumen zu wohen um desswillen die vogel 
mit scheuh waren also wurden sy geheissen insuln dos azores 
das ist auf teutsch so vil als der habichen inseln und umb 
weliche wellen der konik von portugal das ander jar schikt 
16 schiff mit allerley zame thiere und liess auf jede insel 
sein tail thun und darzu multiplieieren," This legend, which 
lies to the southeast of the Azores Islands, reads in transla- 
tion: "1431 years after the birth of our dear Lord, when 
there reigned in Portugal the Infant Don Pedro, the infant 
Don Henry, the King of Portugal's brother, had fitted out 
two vessels and found with all that was needed for two 
years, in order to find out what was beyond the St. Jacob's 
Cape of Finisterre. The ships thus provisioned sailed con- 
tinuously to the westward for 500 German miles, and in 
the end they sighted these ten islands. On landing they 
found nothing but a wilderness and birds which were so 
tame that they fled from no one. But of men or of four 
footed animals none had come to live there because of the 
wildness, and this accounts for the birds not having been 
shy. On this ground the islands were called dos Azores, that 
is. Hawk Islands, and in the year after, the king of Portu- 
gal sent sixteen ships with various tame animals and put 
some of these on each island there to multiply. "^^ 

The following legend relates to the islands of Antilia. 
"Als man zelt nach cristi gepurt 734 jar als ganz hispania 
von dn heiden auf affrica gewonon wurdt do wurdt bewont 
di obgeschriben Insuln Antilia genant Septe citade voneinem 

[ 50 ] 




VBftvlta(V»saaaa 






.- '- S 

: .a o » B 



// 




I* / 











04 






♦♦/ 



\^< 



Fig. 23. Globe of Martin Behaim in Hemispheres. 



^v 



Early Years of Great Geographical Discoveries. 

erzbischoff von porto portigal mit sech andern bischoffs und 
andern cristen man und frawen dj zu sciff von hispanie das 
geflohen komen mit Irem vieh hab und gut anno 1414 ist 
ein schiff aus hispania ungefert darbei gewest am negsten." 
"In the year 734 of Christ when the whole of Spain had 
been won by the heathen of Africa, the above island Antilia 
called Septa Citade (Seven Cities) was inhabited by an 
archbishop from Porto in Portugal, with six other bishops 
and other Christians, men and women, who had fled thither 
from Spain by ship, together with their cattle, belongings 
and goods. 1414 a ship from Spain got nighest it without 



J512 



being endangered. 

Through the inspiration of Behaim the construction of 
globes in the city of Niirnberg became a new industry to 
which the art activities of the city greatly contributed. The 
chief magistrate induced his fellow citizen to give instruc- 
tion in the art of making such instruments, yet this seems to 
have lasted but a short time, for we learn that not long 
after the completion of his now famous "Erdapfel," Behaim 
returned to Portugal, where he died in the year 1507. 

Martin Behaim's map of the world was drawn on parch- 
ment which had been pasted over a large sphere. The Laon 
globe,^^ apparently following closely in time the former, is 
an engraved and gilded copper ball, having a diameter of 
17 cm. There is evidence that at one time it was part of 
an astronomical clock." The engraved surface, on which 
appear the outlines of continents and islands, is well pre- 
served. It has two meridian circles, which intersect at right 
angles and which can be moved about a common axis, like- 
wise a horizon circle which is movable. Numerous circles 
appear engraved on the surface of the ball, including merid- 
ians and parallels. The prime meridian passes through the 
Madeira Islands, a fact which suggests a Portuguese origin, 
since these islands are generally thought to have been dis- 
covered by Lusitanian seamen. One hundred and eighty 
degrees east of this prime meridian, a second meridian is 

[ 51 ] 



Terrestrial and Celestial Globes. 

engraved, equally prominent, passing through the middle of 
the continent of Asia, and 90 degrees still farther to east- 
ward is a third. Each of these meridians is divided into 
degrees, which are grouped in fifths and are numbered by 
tens, starting at the equator. The meridians are intersected 
by a number of parallels, lightly engraved in the northern 
hemisphere, less distinct in the southern, and represent the 
seven climates employed by the cosmographers of the Greek 
and Roman period, as well as by those of the middle ages, in 
their division of the earth's surface. 

As to its geographical representations, this terrestrial 
globe appears to be older than that of Martin Behaim, yet 
at the southern extremity of Africa we find the name "Mons 
Niger," inscribed with the legend "Hue usque Portu- 
galenses navigio pervenere 1493." 

The great enterprise of Christopher Columbus (Fig. 24), 
wherein he may be said to have achieved a final victory 
for the doctrine of a spherical earth, entitled his name to a 
place of prominence in the history of terrestrial globes. 
That Columbus himself constructed globes, as has been 
sometimes inferred from a statement of Las Casas, may, 
however, be questioned, since this statement touches the 
reputed correspondence between Columbus and Toscanelli, 
which correspondence, in the light of the very searching 
studies of Mr. Henry Vignaud, must now be considered to 
be of doubtful authenticity.^^ It appears, however, from 
this letter that the famous Italian cosmographer, Pauolo 
Toscanelli, himself was accustomed to explain problems 
arising in the field of discovery by the use of the globe, and 
Las Casas tells us that Columbus resolved to write to him, 
making known his intentions, which he desired to be able to 
fulfil, and sent to him a globe through Lorenzo Girardi, a 
Florentine, at that time residing in Lisbon.^® Ferdinand 
Columbus, referring to this incident, says that "the globe 
was a small one."" In referring to Bartholomew, the son 
of Christopher Columbus, Las Casas observes that "he was 

[ 52 ] 




Fig. 24. Lorenzo Lotto Portrait of Columbus. 



Early Years of Great Geographical Discoveries. 

a man of prudence and of great intelligence in all matters 
pertaining to the seas. I believe not much less learned in 
cosmography and in what relates thereto, the making of 
navigator's charts and globes and other instruments of that 
kind."^^ Again, we find in a letter which Christopher Colum- 
bus directed to their Catholic Majesties, that he "sent to 
their Majesties a certain round representation."" None of 
these references to globes, as before stated, necessarily give 
us to understand that Christopher Columbus was a globe 
maker. Certain it is that none is now known attributed to 
him or to his son. 

The explorer, John Cabot ( 1450-1498) (Fig. 25), is like- 
wise reputed to have been interested in the construction of 
globes. In a dispatch sent from London, December 18, 1497, 
by the envoy Raimondi di Soncino to the Duke of Milan, we 
read that "this Master John has a description of the world 
on a map, and also on a solid sphere, which he has made, 
and it shows where he landed, and that sailing toward the 
east (west) he had passed far beyond the region of the 
Tanais."'*' 

That terrestrial globes were constructed toward the close 
of the fifteenth century is of significance, not only as a 
response to a new desire for more nearly accurate represen- 
tation of the earth's surface than could be set forth on a 
plane map, but it is likewise significant by reason of the 
fact that such globes as were constructed served to demon- 
strate the value of globe maps, and this value once demon- 
strated, they served to awaken a still further interest in 
globe making, which bears abundant fruitage in the follow- 
ing century. 

There is a very remarkable celestial globe of the fifteenth 
century now belonging to the Lyceum Library of Constance, 
Switzerland. It is the work of Johannes Stoffler (1452- 
1531),"^ at one time a pastor in the town of Justingen, later 
a professor of mathematics in the University of Tiibingen, 
where he achieved renown as mathematician, astronomer, 

[ 53 ] 



Terrestrial and Celestial Globes. 

cosmographer, and mechanic. It appears from the title of 
a publication attributed to Stoffler, 'De artiiiciosa globi 
terrestris compositione,'" that he was a maker of terrestrial 
globes, though no such globe of his is now known, and from 
his letters to Reuchlin we learn that he made no less than 
three celestial globes."^ One of the latter he sent to his 
friend, Probst Peter Wolf of Denkendorf, which repre- 
sented the movements of the sun and of the moon. A sec- 
ond was constructed for Bishop von Dalberg of Worms, on 
which the stars were represented in gold."* Nothing further 
is definitely known of these two globes. A third was con- 
structed for Bishop Daniel of Constance, which is the one 
now to be found in that city's library.'^ This sphere has 
a diameter of 48 cm,, rests upon a wooden base, and is fur- 
nished with a meridian and with a horizon circle. The 
forty-eight constellations of Ptolemy are represented on a 
dark background and are outlined in accord with recognized 
traditions. To a few of the constellations double names are 
given, as "Hercules" and "Genuflexus," "Auriga" and 
"Agitator." Stars of the first magnitude are especially dis- 
tinguished by name, the majority of which are of Arabic 
origin, and more than one thousand stars are clearly indi- 
cated. 

To the globe makers themselves, who were active agents 
in creating a demand for globes, there should here be added 
the name of Conrad Celtes (1459-1508),^'' the distinguished 
German humanist, as that of one who contributed most in 
the first years of modem times toward arousing an interest 
in the use of globes in the schools. Aschbach, in his History 
of the Vienna University,"^ tells us of the school founded 
in Vienna in the year 1510 by the Emperor Maximilian I, 
and of the instruction given in this school by Celtes. We are 
informed that in his lectures on mathematical geography he 
introduced a good text of Ptolemy in the original Greek; 
this he translated into Latin, interpreting the same in Ger- 
man, explaining the several sentences by reference to a 

[ 54 ] 




Fig. 25. Portrait of Sebastian Cabot, 
Son of John Cabot. 



Early Years of Great Geographical Discoveries. 

terrestrial and to a celestial globe. Having no record that 
such a method had been earlier employed we may therefore 
conclude that this distinguished teacher was the first to 
proceed in the manner designated, that is, he was the first 
in modern times to make use of globes in geographical and 
astronomical instruction. 



NOTES 

1. Major, R. H. Life of Prince Henry the Navigator. London, 1868. This 
is one of the first, and, at the same time, one of the most satisfactory 
biographies of Prince Henry ; Beazley, C. R. Prince Henry the Navigator. 
New York, 1895 ; Azurara, Gomez Eannes de. Chronicle of the Discovery 
and Conquest of Guinea. Tr. and ed. by Charles Raymond Beazley and 
Edward Prestage. (Hakluyt Society Publications. London, 1896. 2 vols.) 

2. D'Avczac, M. A. P. Description et histoire des ties de I'Afrique. Paris, 
1848; same author. Notice des decouvertes faites au moyen age dans 
rOcean Atlantique. Paris, 1845; same author, Les lies fantastiques de 
rOcean occidental au moyen age. Paris, 1845 I Margry, P. La conquete des 
lies Canaries. Paris, 1896; Beazley. Dawn of Modern Geography. Vol. HL 
chap. iv. 

The Canary Islands, and perhaps others in the eastern Atlantic, were 
known to the Romans, but appear to have been lost to the knowledge of 
the Europeans during the greater part of the middle ages, to be redis- 
covered in the period in which modern geographical exploration was being 
entered upon. 

3. Ravenstein, E. G. The voyages of Diogo Cao and Bartholomew Diaz. 
(In: Geographical Journal. London, 1900. Vol. XVI, pp. 625-655.) 

4. Beazley. Dawn of Modern Geography. Vol. II, chap, v ; Vol. Ill, 
chap, ii ; Yule, H. The Book of Sir Marco Polo, the Venetian, concerning 
the Kingdoms and Marvels of the East. London, 1903. 2 vols. 

5. Nordenskiold, A. E. Facsimile Atlas. Stockholm, 1889; same author, 
Periplus. Stockholm, 1897 ; Stevenson, E. L. Portolan Charts, their origin 
and characteristics. New York, 191 1; same author, Genoese World Map, 
1457. New York, 1912; same author. Facsimiles of Portolan Charts. New 
York, 1916. 

From the above-named list of works, to which numerous additions 
might be made, a general notion of the beginnings of modern cartography 
can be obtained. 

6. Doppelmayr, J. S. Historische Nachricht von den Niirnbergischen 
Mathematicis und Kiinstlern. Niirnberg, 1730. pp. 27 ff. Murr, C. G. v. Dip- 
lomatische Geschichte des portuguisischen beriihmten Ritters Martin Be- 
haim aus Originalurkunden. Niirnberg, 1778; Ghillany, F. W. Der Erd- 
globus des Martin Behaim von 1492, und der des Johann Schoner 1520. 
Niirnberg, 1842; same author, Geschichte des Seefahrers Ritter Martin 
Behaim, nach den altesten vorhandenen Urkunden bearbeitet. Niirnberg, 

[ 55 ] 



Terrestrial and Celestial Globes. 

1S53; Ziegler, A. Martin Behaim, der Geistige Entdecker Amerikas. Dres- 
den, 1859; Giinther, S. Martin Behaim. Bamberg, 1890; Wieser, F. v. 
Magalhaes-Strasse und Australkontinent auf den Globen des Johannes 
Schoner. Innsbruck, 1881 ; Gallois, L. Les Geographes allemands de la 
renaissance. Paris, 1890. Chap, iii ; Ravenstein, E. G. Martin Behaim, His 
Life and His Globe. London, 1908; Harrisse, H. The Discovery of North 
America. London, 1892. pp. 391. 

Of the above-named works, that by Ravenstein is the most satisfactor>% 
being a most scholarly and scientific treatment of his subject. His vv^ork is 
indeed a monument in the field of historical geography. Of the repro- 
ductions of the globe map, none surpasses the excellent facsimile in the 
form of globe gores vi'hich he prepared to accompany his studies. With the 
utmost care he deciphered the numerous legends and place names, admitting, 
here and there, the possibility of inaccuracy in the readings due to the 
damaged condition of the globe. Vignaud, H., in his Toscanelli and Colum- 
bus, pp. 182-186, gives a list of the numerous reproductions of the globe 
map, with a brief word concerning each. It may here be added that an 
excellent reproduction of the globe, mounted as is the original, and made 
for Dr. W. B. James of New York, in Niirnberg, the Ravenstein gores 
being pasted over the prepared ball, may be seen in the map department of 
The American Geographical Society. A similar reproduction of the globe, 
with mounting of wood instead of iron, was obtained by the author for 
exhibition in the Santa Maria, Spain's Official Replica of the Flagship of 
Admiral Columbus, which was to have been exhibited in San Francisco in 
1915. It failed, however, to reach its destination, and was returned to 
Chicago. 

7. See Fig. 23. 

8. The itemized statement of expenses, delivered to the Niirnberg Council 
by George Holzschuher, was first published by Peitz, J. (In: Mitteilungen 
des Vereins fiir die Geschichte der Stadt Niirnberg, Heft 6. Niirnberg, 
1886.) It is of sufficient interest in the history of globe making to be cited 
here. The translation is Ravenstein's, pp. 111-112. "Expenditure on the 
globe. Expenditure, Niirnberg, August 26, 1494. Below is to be found a 
statement of what I, George Holzschuher have expended by order of my 
lords of the city treasury, upon limning and otherwise, for making the 
'apple,' or mappa mundi in the shape of a sphere, and also for making the 
map for the clerk's office, which Mr. Marten Beham, having expended 
thereon his art and pains, left behind for the enjoyment of my lords of the 
worshipful council. 

"Item first, to Glockenthon, who painted the sphere, and spent 15 weeks 
over it, fl. 14; to his wife, fl. 1, facit, fl. 15, Ib.-dn.- (£2 10s.) 

"Item paid for a loam mould over which the sphere was to have been 
made, as a guide for Kalberger, 28 dn. ; also for linen for the first sphere, 
21 dn. ; also for wine and beer, and other things, for the limner's dinner 
whilst painting the globe, and occasionally also for Peham ; and for bread 
for cleansing the globe, and making it nice, fl. 1, lb. 1, dn. 16; also to 
Gagenhart for lettering, 16 dn. ; fecit, miscellaneous expenses. 

fl. 1, lb. 3, dn. 21 (14s. 5d.) 

"Item paid Glockengiesser for a mould broken by Kalperger, and round 
which Kalperger was to have made a large sphere, both through N. Gross 
and M. Peham 

fl. 2, lb.-, dn.- (£1.) 

[ 56 ] 



Early Years of Great Geographical Discoveries. 

"Item paid for white vellum (parchment) covering the sphere, 80 dn. ; 
also for a cover lined with skin to protect the sphere from dust, 3 lb., 
20 dn.; also to the smith for two iron hoops within which the sphere 
revolves, 4 lb. 6 dn.; also to the joiner for wooden stand of the sphere, 
4 lb. 6 dn. facit, miscellaneous expenses 

fl. 1, lb. 6, dn. 10 (17s. 7d.) 

"Item paid to Mr. Marten Beham for a printed mappa mundi, embracing 
the whole world, which was used for the globe, and is to be hung in the 
town office, 1 fl. 3 lb.; also for painting, etc., 1 fl.; also for lining and 
glueing (mounting) the same, 5 lb. 10 dn. ; also to the joiner for a frame 
and two panels, 1 fl. ; also to the starch painter for painting these panels, 
4 lb. 6 dn. ; facit fl. 4, lb. 4, dn. 6 (£2 5s.) 

"Item, Kalperger has not been paid for making the sphere : he demands 
3 fl., but owes for the linen which was used for the old tent over the 
'beautiful fountain,' in return for which he was to have made the large 
sphere ; he had also broken the pattern or mould for which 2 gulden (20s) 
had to be paid to Glockengiesser ; he also promised Mr. Merten that if 
he taught him the art of cosmography or the laying out (planning) of the 
globe he would make another sphere during the time." 

9. An account of October 16, 1510, reads, "Item, 1 lb. Nov for a large 
brass sign surrounding the map." This doubtless is a reference to the globe. 
Ghillany attributes this work to Werner. See also Giinther, S. Johann 
Werner von Niirnberg und seine Beziehungen zur mathematischen und 
physikalischen Erdkunde. Halle, 1878. 

10. Ravenstein, op. cit., pp. 59-60. 

11. Ravenstein, op. cit., pp. 75-76. 

12. Ravenstein, op. cit., p. 77. 

13. D'Avezac, M. A. P. Sur un globe terrestre trouve a Laon, anterieur 
a la decouverte de I'Amerique. (In: Bulletin de la Societe de Geographic 
dc France. Paris, i860.) 

This work contains an announcement of the discovery of the globe, 
together with a description of the same. 

Raemdonck, J. v. Les spheres celeste et terrestre de Gerard Mercator. 
St. Nicolas, 1874. pp. 25 ff. Nordenskiold. Facsimile Atlas, p. 73. 

14. Britten, F. J. Old clocks and watches and their makers. New York, 
1911; Berthoud, F. Histoire de la mesure du temps par les horologes. 
Paris, 1849. 

Globe clocks, or clocks of which globes were a conspicuous feature, were 
not uncommon in this period. See the reference, p. 73, to the Lenox globe, 
the reference, p. 74, to the Jagellonicus globe, and the reference, p. 173, to 
the work of Dasypodius. 

15. Vignaud, H. Toscanelli and Columbus. London, 1902. 

This is a very remarkable piece of historical criticism. Citation is given 
for every statement of special importance, including a reference to those 
students of the question who do not agree with the author's point of view. 
See also this distinguished author's work, Histoire critique de la Grande 
Entreprise de Christophe Colomb. Paris, 1911. 2 vols. 

16. Las Casas, Bartolome de. Historia de las Indias. Madrid, 1875. Vol. 
I, p. 92. 

17. Ulloa, A. Histoire del S. D. Fernando Colombo. Venice, 1571. Chap. 
vii, p. 15. See Churchill, Voyages, also Bourne, E. G., Spain in America. New 
York, 1904. 

[ 57 ] 



Terrestrial and Celestial Globes. 

18. Las Casas, op. cit., pp. 224 ff. 

19. Las Casas, op. cit., p. 48. 

20. Harrisse, H. Jean et Sebastien Cabot. Paris, 1862. Doc. X, p. 324; 
Tarducci, F. Di Giovanni c Sebastiano Caboto. Venczia, 1892. p. 351 ; 
Winsor, J. Narrative and Critical History of America. Boston, 1884. Vol. 

in, pp. 54-/5- 

Harrisse and Tarducci print the letter of Soncino in the original Italian ; 
Winsor gives the first translation into English (tr. by Professor B. H. 
Nash). A very superior work for reference to the Cabots is: Winship, 
G. P. Cabot Bibliography. London, 1900. 

21. Moll, J. C. A. Johannes StofBer von Justingen, ein Characterbild aus 
dem ersten Halbjahrhundert der Universitat Tubingen. Lindau, 1877. 

22. This work is referred to by Moll in his chapter on "Stofflers 
Schriften." 

23. Moll, op. cit., chap, ix, "Stoffler als Mechaniker," refers to him as 
globe maker and as clock maker, with special mention of his three celestial 
globes. 

24. Giinther is in error in referring to this globe as the one now in 
Constance. 

25. Moll, op. cit., pp. 49-51. 

26. Giinther, S. Geschichte. pp. 250 ff. 

27. Aschbach, J. v. Die Wiener Universitat und ihre Humanisten im 
Zeitalters Kaiser Maximilians I. (In: Geschichte der Wiener Universitat. 
Wien, 1877. Vol. II, p. 62. 




[ 58 ] 



Chapter VI 
Globes of the Early Sixteenth Century 

Summary of fifteenth century globe characteristics. — Increasing 
interest in globes. — Globes of Pope Julius II. — Friar Marco da 
Benevento. — Importance of the Rosselli family of Florence. — The 
globe of Barnaba Canti. — Friar Giuliano Vannelli. — Interest of 
Trithemius in globes. — The Bunau globe. — Waldseemiiller's map 
and globe. — Liechtenstein globes. — Biichlin reference. — Globus 
Mundi. — Welt Kugel. — Lenox globe. — Jagellonicus globe. — 
Hauslab. — Green globe of Paris. — Nordenskiold gores. — So- 
called Leonardo da Vinci gores. — Boulengier gores. — Acton 
globes. — Globes of Magellan and of del Cano. — Globes of 
Schoner. 

TERRESTRIAL globes of the early years of great 
geographical discoveries, that is, of the fifteenth 
century, to which reference was made in the pre- 
ceding chapter, appear to have been constructed either of 
metal, on the surface of which the map was engraved, of 
which the Laon globe is an example ; of a composition fash- 
ioned into a ball over a mould on which strips of parchment 
or paper were then pasted, having the map drawn by hand, 
as the Behaim globe; or the ball was of wood with map in 
manuscript, as was probably the globe attributed to John 
Cabot. Here were beginnings, and the following century 
witnessed a remarkable increase of interest in globe con- 
struction. As the true position of places on the earth's sur- 
face, as well as the distance between any two places, could 
best be represented on a globe, cartographers and globe 
makers became active in their endeavors to meet the desires 
of those interested in geography. They no longer confined 

[ 59 ] 



Ik 



PV52GLOBI2AST 
RIF ..^^^ERi 



Terrestrial and Celestial Globes. 

themselves to such globes as the Behaim and the Laon, 
which, in reality, are artistically interesting rather than 
scientifically useful, but they sought to make use of the new- 
invention of printing. Maps giving the outlines of conti- 
nents, with place names, rivers, constellations, and star 

names were printed from 
wood blocks or from copper 
engraved plates on paper 
gores, which were so fash- 
ioned mathematically that 
they could be made to fit 
the surface of a prepared 
ball, with careful adjust- 
ment and manipulation. In 
this manner globes in great 
numbers could be prepared, 
with the added advantage 
that they were all alike, or 
similar. The sixteenth cen- 
tury soon furnished rules 
for globe-gore construction, 
and while the methods of 
globe making hitherto com- 
mon were not entirely given 
over, as many artistic pieces 
of the period, which have 
come down to us, testify, 
the new method was soon in general favor and became in 
the course of time practically the only method employed. 
It is the globe maker's method today. 

If the actual number of globes constructed shortly be- 
fore and shortly after 1500 appears to have been small, 
judging from the number extant, we often find additional 
assurance of interest in such instruments in the use that was 
made of them for illustrative purposes, and for decoration. 
Terrestrial and celestial globes, as well as armillary spheres, 

[ 60 ] 




Fig. 26. Title-page of Johann 

Schoner's Terrae Descriptio, 

1518. 



Globes of the Early Sixteenth Century. 

frequently appeared on title-pages (Figs. 26, 27), in paint- 
ings (Fig. 28), or constituted a part of library furnishings 
(Fig. 29).^ 




Fig. 27. Second Title-page of Mauro Fiorentino's 
Sphera Volgare, 1537. 



Among the ducal houses, famous in Italy in this period 
for interest in matters geographical, none was more con- 
spicuous than was the house of Este of Ferrara.^ We have 

[ 61 ] 



Terrestrial and Celestial Globes. 

an interesting letter dated Rome, January 17, 1509, and 
written by Fioramonte Brognoli to Isabel of Este, wife of 
Francis II, Marquis of Mantua, daughter of Hercules I, 
Duke of Ferrara, who was responsible for the draughting 
of the Cantino map of the year 1502,^ and granddaughter 
of Duke Borso, to whom Donnus Nicholas Germanus dedi- 
cated or addressed, in 1466, his twenty-seven Ptolemy 
maps.* Brognoli, having received from the Marchioness an 
order for a copy of the globes, terrestrial and celestial, pos- 
sessed by Pope Julius II, made reply that "the map and 
celestial signs which are painted on two solid spheres in the 
library of the Pope, of which your Excellency would like to 
have copies, I have ordered, and the same to be made by 
a good painter of the Palace, who tells me that it will take 
some time because the matter is quite difficult. I will not 
fail in care, and will provide the necessary funds, so that as 
soon as possible I will send them to you by a trusty mes- 
senger."^ Again the Roman correspondent wrote, the letter 
bearing date February 1, 1505, "That master painter who 
would like to make copies of the map and the zodiac which 
are in the library of the Pope, about which Your Excellency 
wrote me some time ago, tells me that to make them with 
linen it will cost more than forty ducats, but to draw them 
on paper according to a certain design which is painted on 
canvas in that place, it would cost very little. I thought I 
would inform Your Excellency before giving the order, 
that I might ascertain your wishes, for I shall do exactly 
that which you desire."** February 20, 1505, the Marchion- 
ess replied from Mantua, saying that "the expense of forty 
ducats will not deter us, if the copy of the map and of the 
zodiac is well made and is similar to that found in the 
library of the Pope. You may order it to be made with 
extreme diligence and with exactness."^ 

The globe of Pope Julius II, in question, must then have 
been constructed prior to 1505, seeing this to be the year 
of the correspondence to which reference has been riiade 

[ 62 ] 




Fig. 28. Holbein's Ambassadors, ca. 1536. 



Globes of the Early Sixteenth Century. 

above. From the partial description given in the letters we 
are led to the conclusion that they were not engraved metal 
globes, but their maps were manuscript, and were well 
decorated by hand. The Vatican Museum is still in pos- 
session of a celestial globe which may well be one of those 
once belonging to Pope Julius II, the terrestrial globe 
having disappeared. From the interesting description of 
Denza^ we learn that this remaining one is a hollow wooden 
ball, 95 cm. in diameter. That there might be an even sur- 
face on which to draw the star map, a covering of plaster 
had been provided, 4 mm. in thickness. It is furnished with 
a somewhat elaborate base, ornamented with sphinxes with 
the heads of eagles and the feet of lions. Its horizon circle, 
supported by four quarter circles, is a band 5 cm. wide, the 
surface of which is divided into five concentric circles, 
within which are the names of the several signs of the 
zodiac in Latin, the names of the days of the month, and 
the names of the eight principal winds in the Italian lan- 
guage. Along the outer edge of this horizon circle is the 
following inscription, "Daniel Chassignet. Fecit. Romae 
1617," a name and date clearly applying only to this circle 
or to the globe's mounting. It has a meridian circle within 
which the sphere revolves. On the surface of the ball we 
find represented the principal circles, that is, the equator, 
the tropics, the polar circles, with five meridians, and the 
ecliptic, its twelve signs being represented in gilded char- 
acters. The coat of arms, painted near the south pole, is 
not that of Pope Julius II, but of Cardinal Gian Stefano 
Ferrero, Bishop of Bologna, who became a supporter of 
Juliani della Rovere in his candidacy for the papal office, 
and to which office he was elected, becoming known as 
Julius II. Fiorini thinks it probable that the globe was 
presented by Cardinal Ferrero to the Pope, and that while 
in his possession the coat of arms was painted on its sur- 
face. It is indeed not improbable that it was originally con- 
structed for the Cardinal. Contrary to the opinion of Denza, 

[ 63 ] 



Terrestrial and Celestial Globes. 

Fiorini's conclusion is that the decoration of the globe is not 
to be attributed to Giulio Romano, a distinguished pupil of 
Raphael, and the arguments presented seem acceptable.^ 

As proof of an existing interest in globes, in Italy, in 
the first years of the sixteenth century, other than that 
given by the letters of Isabel of Este, and the globes of 
Pope Julius, we find an allusion to the subject by Friar 
Marco da Benevento, member of the order of Celestini 
and a renowned mathematician. In his 'Orbis nova de- 
scriptio,'^*^ which he added to an edition of Ptolemy, issued 
in Rome in the year 1507 or 1508, he alludes to the diffi- 
culty of representing the earth upon a solid sphere, adding 
that the greater the size of the same the greater the diffi- 
culty there is in moving it, and that the larger the globe 
the more difficult it is to take in at a glance any consider- 
able part of the map. While making no specific mention 
of any of the globe makers of the time, his reference to the 
subject seems to assure us that globes were objects more 
or less familiar to students of geography in his day. 

Fiorini cites at some length an inventory relating to the 
printing establishment of Alexander Rosselli of Florence, 
under whose father, Francesco, this establishment became 
famous." The father died in the year 1510, but it is prob- 
able that this artist, painter, and miniaturist, who issued 
for his establishment numerous maps, printed, likewise, 
globe gores. While the inventory gives us intimation of his 
great activity, we have no further knowledge of his work 
as a globe maker than is contained therein. It may well 
have been that the construction of globes with printed gore 
maps had its origin in Florence in the very early sixteenth 
century, and that a credit we have been accustomed to give 
to German map makers^" is in reality due the Rosselli family 
of Italy, particularly Francesco Rosselli. 

Fiorini likewise alludes to a letter written by Friar 
Zenobio Acciaioli, dated Lucca, May 12, 1509, and ad- 
dressed to the Florentine, Luigi Pietro Guicciardini, brother 

[ 64 ] 



i,V^^XN^S 




Globes of the Early Sixteenth Century. 

of the distinguished historian/^ Request is made in this 
letter that assistance and advice be given to a brother monk, 
Barnaba Canti, who had been asked to describe a map on 
which the newly discovered lands were well drawn, there 
being written on the map the history of the islands, with a 
description of the lands and of the customs of the peoples. 
Attention is likewise called to a globe which Canti pos- 
sessed, it being designated as "sphaerula" or small. The 
letter further notes, "Cupit autem illam Joannes teutonicus 
astrologus, ut ex suis ad me literis quas inclusas tibi in his 
mitto, videre poteris." "John the German astronomer de- 
sires this (map?) as you will be able to see from his letters 
to me which enclosed I send to you." 

It is ingeniously argued that the Joannes referred to was 
none other than John Schoner, who later became famous 
as mathematician and as map and globe maker, and that the 
globe referred to by Acciaioli was one in the construction 
of which the globe gores of Rosselli had been used, since 
"Joannes teutonicus" in all probability would not have 
thought of receiving from Italy a manuscript globe. 

For the history of globe making as practiced in Florence 
in these early years, there is in the record of the delibera- 
tions of the Florentine Signoria, dated December 30, 1515, 
an entry of interest." The Priors and Gonfaloniers directed 
attention to the sphere, which had been placed in the 
orologia or clock room, noting that the terrestrial orb which 
had been painted thereon was greatly damaged, "... super 
qua depicta est figura et situs orbis terrarum . . . devas- 
tata et male picta." They expressed a desire that it should 
be fully repaired and be made suitable as an adornment 
of the wonderful clock, and in keeping with the remark- 
able celestial sphere which was placed near by: "ut similis 
sit et non discrepet, in sua qualitate, a mirabili orologio pre- 
dicto, et a convicina et mirabili palla, ubi apparet figura 
et ambitus celi." Having knowledge of the ability and 
skill of Friar Giuliano Vannelli, it was decided to entrust 

[ 65 ] 



Terrestrial and Celestial Globes. 

the reconstruction to him. We learn that on June 28, 1516, 
the Signoria directed payment of fifty large florins be made 
to Friar Giuliano, in addition to the six already paid, for 
the painted sphere; that on July 17, 1516, the officers of 
the Monte Comune directed the payment of fifty-six large 
gold florins to "Don Giuliani Vanegli" "in appreciation of 
his work, and as a reward for having made one of the two 
balls of the clock, which is in the large room of the Signoria, 
which ball he both designed and painted, showing on it the 
entire universe, according to Ptolemy and other authors 
who deal with the subject." Fiorini notes that as at this time 
the terrestrial sphere was damaged it probably was several 
years old, and that if badly painted (male picta) the infer- 
ence is, it failed to record the latest discoveries. If the exact 
date of the construction of the spheres which adorn this 
clock cannot be ascertained, it was at least before 1500.^'' 

We have further evidence of Vannelli's interest in globe 
construction contained in a letter dated Rome, November, 
1524, and addressed to Cardinal Giovanni Salviati, a legate 
of Lombardy. "Your Excellency has asked me to make for 
you a small ball de situ orbis, of the size and character of 
that of Giovanni Ruccellai. ... I have made the said 
ball, and have varnished it, but the weather being bad it 
will not be dry for eight or ten days. . . . Your Excel- 
lency also tells me that you would like to have a large 
globe similar to that of Mons. R. Rodulphis, which I have 
begun. 'If you desire that I should go on with the work, I 
shall willingly do so, putting aside all other work to serve 

5516 

you. 

To the interest in globe making north of the Alps in the 
first quarter of the sixteenth century attention may next be 
directed. In a letter written by Johannes Trithemius to 
Vuilhelmus Veldicus Monapius, dated August 12, 1507, 
may be found an early allusion to globes. He says : "Orbem 
terrae marisqui et insularum quem pulchre depictum in 
Vuormotia scribis esse venalem, me quidem consequi posse 

[ 66 1 




bJO 






o 

U 

d 

CO 
bio 



Globes of the Early Sixteenth Century. 

obtarum, sed quadraginta pro illo expendere florenos, nemo 
mihi facile persuadet. Comparavi autem mihi, ante paucos 
dies, pro aere modico sphaeram orbis pulchram in quantitate 
parva . . ." "I wanted to buy a finely painted globe of 
the earth, seas, and islands, which I wrote was for sale in 
Worms, but I could hardly be induced to give such a price 
for it as forty florins. I purchased, however, a few days 
since at a low price, a beautiful terrestrial globe of small 
size."^^ He wrote further, "Henricum de Bunau dies vita 
audini defunctum, sed libros eius et globum cosmographiae 
quem alim comparavit ex officina tua remanisse apud 
Saxoniae Principes, quod tu existimas non audini." "I am 
informed that Henry Bunau died some time ago, but I never 
heard it said that his books and the cosmographical globe 
which he bought in your work-shop remained with the 
Princes of Saxony, as you believe."^^ It has been thought by 
some that the globe referred to as having been purchased 
in Worms was the globe of Waldseemiiller. 

Since the discovery in 1902 of the long-lost Waldsee- 
miiller maps of 1507 and of 1516 by Professor Joseph 
Fischer, S. J., in the library of Prince de Waldburg- 
Wolfegg (Fig. 30), great interest has centered especially in 
the work of that early German map maker. As the new 
transatlantic discoveries of the Spanish and the Portuguese 
greatly quickened interest in geographical science and made 
necessary the construction of new maps in rapid succession, 
Germany, already a land in which the renaissance spirit had 
found an enthusiastic reception, and whose people were 
awake to every new interest, soon became a center for the 
spread of information concerning the new regions. Com- 
mercially important trade cities of this country had been for 
some time in intimate touch with the important maritime 
trade centers of Spain and Portugal. Word of the newest 
discoveries was quickly carried over the Alps to France and 
to Germany, and the latest publication of the writer on 

[ 67 ] 



Terrestrial and Celestial Globes. 

matters geographical had its references to the parts of the 
world newly found of which Ptolemy had not known. 

One of the first German geographers of the century, and 
now justly famed as one of the most distinguished of the 
period, was Martin Waldseemiiller (ca. 1470-1522 ca.), 
whose name, according to the practice of the time, was 
classicized as Hylacomylus/^ So significant was the influ- 
ence of Waldseemiiller in the mapping of the New World 
that a somewhat detailed word concerning him may here 
well be given. When Duke Rene of Lorraine (1451-1508) 
became a patron of learning, with particular interest in 
cosmography or geography, the cartographical studies of 
the Germans began to have a place of far-reaching impor- 
tance. It was under this enlightened duke that the little 
town of St. Die became a center of culture. Here was 
organized the Vosgian Gymnasium, '^ a society of learned 
men not unlike the Platonic Academy of Florence or the 
Danubian Society, Vienna. Of this St. Die coterie none 
was more prominent than Jean Bassin de Sandacourt,^'^ 
the translator of the 'Four Voyages' of Amerigo Vespucci 
from the French into the Latin, Lud, the ducal secretary 
and author of an important little work of but few pages, 
which he called 'Speculi orbis succinciss . . . ,'*^ and 
Waldseemiiller, the professor of cosmography, the author 
of the 'Cosmographiae Introductio . . . ,'^^ and a cartog- 
rapher of great skill, who, with Ringmann, planned and 
carried well on toward completion, as early as 1507 or 1508, 
an edition of Ptolemy, which in 1513 was printed in the 
city of Strassburg.^* It probably was as early as 1505 that 
the plan was under consideration for a new translation of 
Ptolemy from the Greek into the Latin, and that thought 
perhaps had its inspiration in the letters of Vespucci, in 
which he gave an account of his four voyages, and in the 
new chart which but recently had fallen into the hands of 
Ringmann. These charts, says Lud, in his 'Speculum,' came 
from Portugal, which, if true, leads one to the belief that 

[ 68 ] 




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a 
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Globes of the Early Sixteenth Century. 

they exhibited genuine Vespucian data.^^ Whatever the 
truth concerning the origin of these charts, that determina- 
tion became a starting point for a most important evolu- 
tion in cartographical history of the world."'' In April, 1507, 
Waldseemiiller had written to his friend, Amerbach, in 
Basel, "Non credo te latere nos Ptholomei cosmographiam, 
recognitio et adiectis quibusdam novis tabulis impressuros 
in oppido Divi Deodati. . . . Solidum quod ad generale 
Ptholomei paravimus nondum impressum est, erit autem 
impressum infra mensis spacium."^^ "I think you know al- 
ready that I am on the point of printing in the town of 
St. Die (Lorraine), the Cosmography of Ptolemy, after 
having added to the same some new maps. . . . the globe 
comprising Ptolemy in general, which we have prepared, 
is not yet printed, but will be so in a month." While great 
interest centers in these "new maps," prepared for the pro- 
posed edition of Ptolemy, a greater interest now centers 
in the map to which Waldseemiiller repeatedly alludes in 
the years 1507-1511, especially in his 'Cosmographiae In- 
troductio' (Fig. 31), which map it was the good fortune of 
Professor Joseph Fischer, S. J., to bring to light in the year 
1902, as noted above.^^ In the dedication of his little book 
to the Emperor Maximilian, he says, "Hinc factu est vt 
me libros Ptholomei ad exeplar Grecu quorunda ope p 
virili recognoscete & quatuor Americi Vespucii navigationu 
lustratioes adiiciete: totius orbis typu ta in solido q3plano 
(velut preuiam quanda ysagogen) p comuno studiosoru 
vtilitate parauerim."^^ "Therefore studying to the best of 
my ability and with the aid of several persons, the Books 
of Ptolemy from a Greek copy, and adding the Relations 
of the Four Voyages of Amerigo Vespucci, I have prepared 
for the general use of scholars a map of the whole world, 
like an introduction, so to speak, both in the solid and on 
a plane." Waldseemiiller says further, wherein he gives a 
description of his new map, "Propositum est hoc libello 
quandam Cosmographie introductione scribere; quam nos 

[ 69 ] 



Terrestrial and Celestial Globes. 

tarn in solido 93 piano depinximus. In solido quidem spacio 
exclusi strictissime. Sed latius in piano. . . ."^° "The pur- 
pose of this little book is to write a description of the world 
map, which we have designed, both as a globe and as a 
projection. The globe I have designed on a small scale, the 
map on a larger." 

From the above citation it appears that as early as April, 
1507, the same preparation had been made for a globe that 
had been made for the issue of a large world map. The 
map, as noted, has been found, but neither a globe nor a 
set of globe gores is known bearing the indisputable evi- 
dence of his authorship. In the library of Prince Liechten- 
stein, however, is a somewhat crudely executed gore map 
(Fig. 32) which, according to certain cartographical stu- 
dents, should be accepted as a copy of the work to which 
the allusions are made in the 'Cosmographiae.'^^ These gores, 
twelve in number, and each 12 cm. in length, this length 
representing the length of a meridian of the globe ball 
which the gores could be made to cover, were printed from 
a wood engraved block. They exhibit the Old World, in 
the main, in accord with the Ptolemaic idea, and the New 
World with a close resemblance to the Canerio map record, 
and that of Waldseemiiller's world map of 1507.^^ The 
North American region is nameless, but the South American 
region bears conspicuously the name "America." At inter- 
vals of ten degrees lines of latitude and longitude are 
marked. As a title to a lithographic reproduction of this 
map issued some years since by the Prince, is the subscrip- 
tion "Erster gedruckter Globus. Martin Hylocomylus 
(Waltzemiiller). Gehort wahrscheinlich zo seinem 1509 
herausgegebenen Buche Globus Mundi." "First printed 
globe. Martin Hylacomylus (Waltzemiiller). Probably 
belonging to his Globus Mundus which appeared in 1509."^^ 

That which adds special significance to this young Ger- 
man's representations of the new lands, so far as our study 
of globes is concerned, is the repeated recurrence of his 

[ 70 ] 



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Globes of the Early Sixteenth Century. 

particular outlines or contours in the globe maps of the 
first quarter of the century, produced by such cartographers 
as Johann Schoner of Niirnberg, and by those of his school, 
as will be noted below. Both the globe and the large world 
map were doubtless printed in large numbers and widely 
distributed. Waldseemiiller states in a legend on his marine 
chart of 1516 that he had printed his map of 1507 in one 
thousand copies,^* but one of which is now known. 

In a little tract, printed in Strassburg in the year 1509, 
there appears to be a reference to a globe which may be 
that constructed by Waldseemiiller. It is this reference 
which the Prince of Liechtenstein, as noted above, has taken 
as a reference to the gore map, a copy of which is in his 
collection. The title of this tract reads, "Diss biichlin saget 
wie die zwe durchliichtigste herre her Fernandus, K. zu 
Castilien und herr Emanuel, K. zu. Portugal haben das 
weyte mor ersuchet unnd funden vil Insulen unnd ein 
Niiwe welt von wilden nackenden Leiiten vormals vnbe- 
kant." "Gedruct zii Strassburg durch Johane Griiniger Im 
lar M.CCCCC.IX vff Letare. Wie du aber dye Kugel du 
beschreibung der gantzenn welt verston soltt wiirst die 
hernach linden vnnd lesen." "This little book relates how 
the two most illustrious Lords Ferdinand, King of Castile 
and Emanuel, King of Portugal have searched through the 
wide seas and discovered many islands and a new world 
and naked peoples hitherto unknown." "Printed at Strass- 
burg by Johann Griiniger. In the year MCCCCCIX on 
Letaro. But how you shall understand the globe and the 
description of the whole world )'ou will hereafter find out 
and read."^^ Harrisse thinks it probable that a real globe 
accompanied and was sold with this little volume.^^ 

In the same year, 1509, there issued from the press of 
Griiniger a second volume, in character somewhat like the 
preceding, but in the Latin language. In this the allusion 
to the globe is more definite, for its title seems to assure us 
that it was prepared to accompany a real globe. This title 

[ 71 ] 



Terrestrial and Celestial Globes. 

reads, "Globus mundi Declaratio slue descriptio mundi et 
totius orbis terrarum. globulo rotundo comparati vt spera 
solida. Qua cuiuis etia mediocriter docto ad oculu videre 
licet antipodes esse, quos pedes nostris oppositi sunt." 
"Valete feliciter ex Argentina ultima Augusti. Anno post 
natu salutatore. M.D.ix. Johannes griiniger imprimebat. 
Adelpho castigatore," "The world globe. Exposition or de- 
scription of the world and of the terrestrial sphere con- 
structed as a round globe similar to a solid sphere, whereby 
every man even of moderate learning can see with his own 
eyes that there are antipodes whose feet are opposite 
ours. . . . Farewell, Strassburg on the last day of August 
A. D. 1509. Printed by Johann Griiniger. Corrected by 
Adolphus."^^ Neither the author of this tract nor the maker 
of the globe is known of certainty. They have been attrib- 
uted to Glareanus as well as to Waldseemiiller. 

There is still a third volume printed by Griiniger in this 
year, 1509, which, however, appears to be but little more 
than a German translation of the 'Globus Mundi,' The 
title, slightly altered, reads, "Der welt kugel Beschrybiing 
der Welt und dess gatzen Erttreichs hie angezogt iind ver- 
gleicht einer rotunden kugeln die dan sunderlich gemacht 
hie zii gehorede darin der Kauffma und ein ietlicher sehen 
iind mercken mag wie die menschen unde gege uns wone iin 
wie die son umbgang, herin beschriben mit vil seltzame 
dinge (wood cut of globe) Getrucht zii Strassburg. Von 
Johanne Gruniger in yar. M.D.ix. uif ostern. Johanne 
Adelpho castigator." "Description of the world globe, of 
the world and the entire terrestrial sphere here constructed 
and made to resemble a round ball and is so arranged that 
the merchant and every man may clearly see how that men 
live underneath us, and here may be seen how the sun 
moves about (the earth) with many wonderful things. 
Printed at Strassburg. By Johann Griiniger in the year 1 509 
at easter. Johann Adelpho corrector."^^ This can as con- 
fidently be taken to refer to a real globe as the title in the 

[ 72 1 




Fig. 34. Lenox Globe, 1510. 




Fig. 35. Lenox Globe in Hemispheres. 



(Bldbm trnvioi 
^edaratiofiuc t^efcriptto munt>t 

nconne oibis ttmnjm.globulo rorDndocompanriTtlpiralbU 
da.)6lu4 cuiuM cni mcduxriccronao adomuTidcrc licaan/ 
iipod(8(flex)no)ipcdce noftns oppofiti funuu quaUrcr in Tna/ 
(liuqsoibiepambemmcs vicamagcrt qaeunt fibmttfck fin/ 
euliitmr loa lUulh'jincsiufCimcn terra in Ta<no aeit pcmkre 
Tulcnirioto odnum (utlam.'iUjUf pcrmultio oc qiuru cbw 
torjru pone nopcrdb amcnco rcpcitb 



Globes of the Early Sixteenth Century. 

tract to which reference has just been made. It is probable 
that we can obtain some idea of the appearance of the globe 
from the small woodcut printed on the title-page of both 
the Latin and the German editions, of which a conspicuous 
feature is the representation of a small land area southwest 
of Africa, bearing the inscription "Nliw welt" (Fig. 33). 
As the little book was issued in both Latin and German, 
Harrisse thinks it probable 
that two editions of the 
globe likewise appeared.^^ 

The Lenox globe*° is 
often referred to as the 
oldest extant post-Colum- 
bian globe. It is an en- 
graved copper ball of ex- 
cellent workmanship, 127 
mm. in diameter (Figs. 34, 
35), neither signed nor 
dated, and is without 
mountings. A critical study 
of its geographical records, 
particularly of the New 
World representations, has 
led to the conclusion that 
it was made as early as 
1510. The two sections or 
hemispheres of which it is 
composed are joined at the 

equator. Neither parallels nor meridians are indicated, and 
though a striking error appears in giving to the eastern hemi- 
sphere, or the Old World, too great an extension in longi- 
tude, the principal latitudes are well given. The globe was 
found in the year 1850, in Paris, by Mr. Richard Hunt, by 
whom it was presented to Mr, James Lenox, and is now one 
of the choicest objects in that great collector's library, which 
library constitutes an important part of the New York 

[ 73 ] 




AlttOTOX' 



Fig. 33. Globus Mundi, 1509. 



Terrestrial and Celestial Globes. 

Public Library. In its New World representation, South 
America appears as a large island having three regional 
names, "iSIundus Novus," "Terra Sanctae Crucis," and 
"Terra de Brazil." "Isabel" (Cuba), "Spagnolla" (Haiti), 
and a few unnamed islands belonging to the West Indies 
have been outlined. In the place of North America there 
are scattered islands, one of which, located near the north- 
west extremity of "Terra de Brazil," bears the name 
"Zipangri" (Japan), and one in the far north, but un- 
named, clearly resembles the Cortereal region, as it appears 
on the Cantino and on the Canerio map. A few of the many 
islands in the eastern seas are designated by name as 
"Taprobana," "Madagascar," and "Seilan." 

A globe but little known, but resembling in a striking 
manner the Lenox, is that belonging to the Jagellonicus 
University Library of Cracow, Poland.*^ It is a gilded cop- 
per ball, 7.3 cm. in diameter (Figs. 36, 37), and constitutes 
a part of a fine old clock of the sixteenth century. Merid- 
ians and parallels are engraved and numbered on its sur- 
face at intervals of ten degrees, the prime meridian passing 
through the island Ferro. While it is neither signed nor 
dated, there is scarcely a doubt that it is as old as the Lenox 
globe; indeed, the geographical features of the two globes 
are so similar that they appear to be the work of the same 
globe maker, or copies of a common original, yet it is note- 
worthy that the nomenclature of the Jagellonicus globe is 
somewhat richer. The large island which lies southeast of 
Madagascar and is nameless on the Lenox appears on the 
Jagellonicus with a very interesting inscription, reading 
"America noviter reperta." Comparing the coast of "Mun- 
dus Novus" with the coast of this "America noviter re- 
perta," Tadeus Estreicher finds support for the belief that 
the globe was constructed soon after the year 1507, in 
which year Waldseemiiller suggested the name America for 
the region discovered by Amerigo Vespucci. He, however, 
seems not to have noticed the possibility that the inscrip- 

[ 74 ] 




Fig. 36. Jagellonicus Globe, 1510. 




<3.c«^ c tCo vi/ic^/V3 . 



Fig. 37. Jagellonicus Globe in Hemispheres. 



Globes of the Early Sixteenth Century. 

tion appearing on this large island indicated not only an 
acquaintance, on the part of the Jagellonicus cartographer, 
with Waldseemiiller's suggestion as to the name America, 
but a belief that America was actually located in this par- 
ticular region. In his chapter on climates Waldseemiiller 
says, "Atq3 in sexto climate Antarcticu versus & pars ex- 
trema Africae nuper reperta & Zamzibar lauva minor & 
Seula insule & quarta orbis pars (quam quia Americus 
inveuit Amerigen quasi Americi terra siue America nuncu- 
pare licet) sitae sunt." "In the sixth climate toward the 
Antarctic there are situated the farthest part of Africa, re- 
cently discovered, the islands Zanzibar, the lesser Java, 
and Seula, and the fourth part of the earth, which, because 
Amerigo discovered it, we may call Amerige, the land of 
Amerigo, so to speak, or America."" Following the above, 
Waldseemiiller notes what Pomponius Mela has to say 
concerning "these southern climates," that is, concerning 
this antipodal region. 

In the rich cartographical collection of Prince Liechten- 
stein there may be found, in addition to the globe gores 
referred to above, an interesting globe, usually referred to 
as the mounted Hauslab globe.*^ It is of wood, having a 
diameter of about 37 cm. and is covered with a prepara- 
tion on which a world map has been drawn or painted. It 
is furnished with a wooden base, a meridian and a horizon 
circle of brass, and an axis of iron on which it turns, all 
of which furnishings, however, appear to be of later date 
than the sphere itself. Though neither signed nor dated, 
it exhibits many features which suggest a close relation- 
ship with the globes of Johann Schoner; indeed, it is not 
improbable that it is an early example of his workmanship. 
"I am of the opinion," says Luksch, "that the globe of 
Schoner of 1515 and the Hauslab globe were drawn from 
one common original sketch," a conclusion based largely 
upon the fact that on the two globes the outlines of the 
New World are almost identical. As to the date when con- 

[ 75 ] 



Terrestrial and Celestial Globes. 

structed, a comparison with other globes of the second 
decade of the century has led to the conclusion that it 
must have been prior to the year 1515, and perhaps as 
early as 1513. In its representation of the Old World, the 
land is made to extend through 240 degrees, counting from 
the island of Porto Santo, whose meridian has been taken 
as the prime meridian. The northern section of the New 
World is given the name "Par(ias)," the last letters of the 
word having been obliterated by age, while the southern 
section is called "America." The great austral land south 
of the apex of the southern continent, appearing on the 
Schoner globe of 1515 as "Brasilie regio," is omitted on 
the Hauslab globe. The continents, rivers, and mountains 
represented are very dark in color, and were probably orig- 
inally blue, black, or red, and the seas are a dark blue. The 
equator, as drawn on the surface of the sphere, is divided 
into degrees, represented alternately in white and black, 
and every tenth degree is indicated by an appropriate num- 
ber, beginning, as stated above, at the island of Porto Santo. 
By way of decoration a border of gold is given to the lines 
representing the equator, the tropics, and the polar circles. 
In the geographical department of the Bibliotheque 
Nationale of Paris is a globe referred to in cartographical 
literature as the Green globe, or the Quirini globe, the first 
name being given to it by Gabriel Marcel,** by reason of 
the prominence of the color green employed in painting 
the seas (Fig. 38). It is an unsigned and undated wooden 
sphere, 24 cm. in diameter. Its surface appears to have 
been covered with a coating of paint, originally white, and 
on this the world map was drawn. There is much artistic 
skill displayed in the coast configurations, with the deeply 
shaded seaboards making the land appear to rise above the 
ocean surface, and in the representation of the islands, most 
of which are made conspicuous in red or gold. The inscrip- 
tions in dark brown, perhaps originally black, are neatly 
written, clearly suggesting that the globe was constructed 

[ 76 ] 




Fig. 38. The Green Globe, 1515. 



Globes of the Early Sixteenth Century. 

in the first quarter of the sixteenth century, perhaps as 
early as 1513 or 1515. The equator, the tropics, and the 
polar circles are traced in gold; the degrees of latitude and 
longitude are marked in red, and at intervals of ten de- 
grees. The prime meridian is made to pass through the 
Cape Verde Islands, islands referred to as "Insule Por- 
tugalensium invente anno Domini 1472." This globe shows 
a striking resemblance to those of Schoner of 1515, a fact 
which has led Marcel to refer it to the Schonerian school, 
though not to attribute it directly to Schoner himself, A 
very important and interesting feature of the globe is the 
appearance of the name "America" no less than four times 
in the New World; twice in what we now call North 
America and twice in South America. It is, indeed, the 
oldest known cartographical monument on which the name 
America is given both to the north and the south conti- 
nental areas. In the southern continent we read "America 
ab inuentore nuncupata," and near the Antilles "Iste insule 
per Columbus genuensem almirantem et mandato regis 
castelle invente sunt." "These islands were discovered by 
Columbus, a Genoese admiral, by command of the king of 
Castile." Harrisse observes that it appears the cartographer 
thought of Columbus as the discoverer of the West India 
Islands only, and that he thought the honor of the discovery 
of the American continents, north and south, belongs to 
Vespucius.*^ An austral land appears, though nameless, 
which Schoner called "Brasilie regio" on his globe of 1515, 
and "Brasilia inferior" on his globe of 1520. 

Nordenskiold has described a set of twelve globe gores, 
engraved on wood, belonging to his own collection, which 
he assigns to the year 1518.*^ Of these particular gores three 
sets are known ; one being in the collection of Prince Liech- 
tenstein (Fig. 39), one in the Bibliotheque Nationale, and 
one, as noted, in the possession of Nordenskiold. On these 
gore maps North America bears the name "Terra Cuba" 
and "Parias." South America has the name "America" 

[ 77 ] 



Terrestrial and Celestial Globes. 

inscribed in large letters, with an accompanying legend 
reading "Terra Noua Inuenta est Anno 1497." "The New- 
World discovered in the year 1497."" The austral land, 
appearing on the Schoner globes, is wanting. By reason of 
the fact that the names of but two European cities are 
inscribed, these being "Ingolstadt" and "St. Jacobus," the 
suggestion has been made that the map is the work of 
Apianus, a celebrated geographer of Ingolstadt, author of 
the important map of 1520 and a globe maker.*^ In their 
general features these gores are of the Schonerian type, 
which we may also characterize as Lusitano-Germanic. 

In the Royal Collections of Windsor Castle may be 
found a set of eight globe gores (Fig. 135), attributed by 
Major to Leonardo da Vinci, but with very little more 
reason for the assignment than the fact that they were found 
in a collection of papers in the handwriting of that famous 
artist. They are drawn as equilateral triangles, each repre- 
senting one eighth of the earth's surface, not as biangles, 
which is the usual form for early globe gores.*^ Major de- 
scribed the map as the oldest known on which the name 
America appears, giving as the probable date of construc- 
tion' the year 1514, which date is thought by Harrisse to be 
five or six years too early.^*' Such a distinction as was claimed 
for the record of the name America by Major, being likewise 
assigned at various times to other early maps, has at last 
been definitely fixed as belonging to the world map of 
Waldseemiiller of 1507." The outlines of the New World 
bear a resemblance to those found in the Lenox and the 
Jagellonicus globes. The North American region is repre- 
sented by two islands, one of which bears the name "Baca- 
lar," the other "Terra Florida." South America, a large 
island, has conspicuously inscribed the name "America," 
together with a few prominent coast names. These gores 
are chiefly of interest by reason of their peculiar form. 

An interesting set of globe gores of the first quarter of 
the sixteenth century is that attributed to Boulengier, of 

[ 78 ] 




Fig. 39. Liechtenstein Globe Gores, ca. 1518. 



Globes of the Early Sixteenth Century. 

which but one copy, now belonging to the New York Public 
Library, is known. ^" These gores, twelve in number (Fig. 
40), were printed from a copper engraved plate 18 by 36 
cm. in size, but bear neither date nor name of author. The 
title appearing across the bottom of the map reads, "Vni- 
versalis cosmographie descriptio tam in solido quem piano." 
They were found in a copy of Waldseemiiller's 'Cosmo- 
graphiae Introductio,' printed at Lyons by Jean de la Place, 
but undated. Harrisse gives as the probable date of the pub- 
lication between November 27, 1517, and May 26, 1518.^^ 
With this engraved world map were found two other copper 
plates, one bearing the title "Astrolabium Phisicum," the 
other "Motus novae spere et trepidacionis spere MDXIV," 
and signed "Artificis Ludovici Boulengier, Allebie, 1514." 
As this edition of the 'Cosmographiae' was prepared for the 
press by Boulengier,^* who in his day achieved distinction 
as a mathematician, astronomer, and geographer, this gore 
map has been ascribed to him. It appears from a statement 
on the verso of a folded plate belonging to Chapter VIII 
that a globe had been prepared to accompany it.^^ This 
statement, while not agreeing in all respects with one to be 
found in the edition of 1507, is of similar import. Boulengier 
states in his dedicatory letter that he had noted other globes 
which had been previously published. As a bit of copper 
engraving it is very artistically done; its inscriptions, coast 
outlines, and rivers are drawn in soft ornamental lines. 
That region representing North America bears simply the 
name "Nova," while South America is referred to as "Amer- 
ica noviter reperta," a wording for this information which 
elsewhere appears only on the Jagellonicus globe. These 
gores are of sufBcient dimensions to cover a ball 1 1 cm. in 
diameter. 

In the year 1877 or 1878, reports Professor Ferdinando 
Jacoli, Admiral William Acton acquired two interesting and 
scientifically valuable terrestrial globes of the early six- 
teenth century once belonging to Count Piloni of Belluno, 

[ 79 ] 



Terrestrial and Celestial Globes. 

Italy.'*' That one appearing to be the older of the two re- 
sembles so closely the Paris green globe in size, having 
a diameter of 24 cm., and in its details, that there is good 
reason for thinking it to be the work of the same author. 
Like the Paris globe it is neither signed nor dated. The 
surface of the ball is covered with a preparation of plaster 
on which the geographical details have been written. Seas 
and lands are colored, the equator, the tropics, and the 
polar circles are indicated by gilded lines. Meridians are 
drawn at intervals of ten degrees, the prime meridian pass- 
ing through the Canary Islands, and parallels are likewise 
represented at intervals of ten degrees. The metal meridian 
circle and the stand upon which the sphere rests retain in 
places some of the old gilding. Professor Jacoli expresses 
the opinion that it may be of Spanish or of Portuguese 
origin, an opinion based upon the nomenclature. It seems, 
however, probable that the author was an Italian and that 
he merely employed the Spanish or the Portuguese sources, 
as was so frequent, and in so large a measure necessary, in 
that day. In Africa the author has represented the "Peludes 
nili," and two lakes into which several rivers flow having 
their source in the Mountains of the Moon. To the south- 
east of the continent is represented "Zanzibar insula," and 
near this are a number of small islands with the legend 
"Iste insule ex mandato regis Portugalliae lustrate sunt." 
The islands of Ceylon and Sumatra are laid down but are 
given the names "Taprobana" and "Seula" respectively. 
In the interior of Asia we read "Carama civitas magna," 
near this "Thebet provincia mais," and below "Hie dnat 
prespiter Johannes rex totius Indiae." In eastern Asia is 
the name "Catay" and near this the legend "Zumsay est 
queda civitas mag. in medio lacus magnus," the Paris globe 
having "Quinsay" instead of "Zumsay." The New World 
in its outlines bears striking resemblance to the early globes 
of Schoner. Along the west coast of South America is the 
legend "Tota ista provincia inventa est per mandatum regis 

[ 80 ] 




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Globes of the Early Sixteenth Century. 

Castelle," near the same "Terra ultra incognita," and ex- 
tending along the west coast of North America "Terra 
ulterius incognita," all of which legends, in identical word- 
ing, appear on the Paris globe. The Antilles are referred to 
in the legend "iste insule per Columbum Genuensem Almi- 
rantem ex mandato regis Castelle perite sunt," and in South 
America "America ab inventore nuncupata." Near the west 
coast of Africa we find "Insule portugalensium invente — 
domini 1477," one of which is called "visionis insula." 
The author has also represented an Antarctic continent but 
has made no reference to it by specific name or legend. If 
the Paris globe was constructed before 1520, as Marcel 
concluded, there is likewise good reason why the Acton 
globe should also be assigned to the second decade of the 
sixteenth century. 

Las Casas, in his 'Historia de las Indias,' tells us that 
when Magellan (Fig. 41) offered his services to the King of 
Spain for an expedition to the Moluccas he had a globe to 
serve him in the demonstration of his plan. "Traia el Magal- 
lanes vn Globo bien pintado, en que toda la tierra estaba, y 
alii seilalo el camino que habia de llevar, salvo que el estra- 
cho dejo, de industria, en bianco, porque alguno no se lo 
saltease."" "Magellan had a well painted globe, which 
exhibited the entire earth, and he showed thereby the route 
which he thought of taking, but with intention he had left 
the strait blank so that no one might learn his secret." 

Other allusions to this globe we do not have, unless there 
is such in a letter written by Sebastian Alvares to King 
Don Manuel, dated Seville, July 18, 1519. In giving in- 
f onnation concerning the plan of Magellan Alvares states : 
"A rrota que se diz que han de levar he dir*° ao cabo fryo 
ficando Ihe o brasy a mao dir*^ ate pasar a linha da particao e 
daly navegar ao eloeste e loes noroeste dir*^^ a maluco a quail 
trra de maluco en vy asentada na poma e carta que ea fez 
o f'' de Reynell a quail no era acabada quando caa seu pay 
veo por ele, e seu pay acabou tudo e pos estas trras de maluco 

[ 81 ] 



Terrestrial and Celestial Globes. 

e p este paderam se fazem todallas cartas as quaees faz di° 
Ribeiro e faz as agulhas quadrantes e esperas, porem no vay 
narmada nem qr mais q ganhar de comeer p seu engenho." 
"The course which it is said they are to take is straight to 
Cape Frio, Brazil remaining on their right hand until they 
reach the line of demarcation, thence they are to navigate to 
the west and west-northwest straight to Moluco, which land 
of Moluco I have seen laid down on the sphere and map 
which the son of Reynell made here which was not complete 
when his father came here for him ; and his father finished it 
all, and placed these islands of Moluco; and after this pat- 
tern all the maps are made which Diego Ribeiro makes, and 
he makes the compasses, quadrants and globes, but he does 
not go in the fleet, nor does he wish to do more than gain 
his living by his skill.'"' 

We find reference to a globe of this early period as be- 
longing to Juan Sebastian del Cano, the reference thereto 
being contained in his will made on board the Victoria, 
June 26, 1526, and reading "Una esfera poma del mondo."^^ 
It probably was made of wood and painted, as there is good 
reason for believing that such as were carried by early navi- 
gators on their vessels were of this character. Harrisse thinks 
"this globe would probably prove to be one of the most 
interesting of all for that period, exhibiting, doubtless, the 
hypothesis of Magellan relative to the configuration of the 
southwest coast of South America north of 50 degrees south 
latitude.""" Although the will of Del Cano is dated 1526 
there is reason for thinking the globe was constructed prior 
to 1520. 

Among the globe makers of the early sixteenth century 
none merits greater distinction than Johann Schoner of 
Niirnberg (1477-1547) (Fig. 42), mathematician, astron- 
omer, and geographer."^ He was born in Carlstadt, Fran- 
conia, held a church office for some years in Bamberg, and 
in the year 1526, upon the advice of Melanchthon, became 
a professor of mathematics in the gymnasium of Niirnberg, 

[ 82 ] 




Fig. 41. Portrait of Magellan. 



Globes of the Early Sixteenth Century. 

to the fame of which city, as a scientific center, Regiomon- 
tanus had so greatly contributed in the preceding century. 
His activities as a globe maker began as early as the second 
decade of the century, and his influence soon became very 
pronounced. In Niimberg he labored until the time of his 
death in the year 1547, editing, in addition to his other 
activities, the literary and scientific works of Regiomon- 
tanus and of Werner, and each year until 1543 issued his 
so-called Calendars. His numerous publications, mathemati- 
cal, astronomical, and cosmographical, alone entitle him to 
a place of first importance among German scientific leaders 
of his day. 

It was as early as 1515, at the cost of a wealthy patron, 
Johann Seylor, that he made in Bamberg what has usually 
been accepted as his first globe, two copies of which are now 
known, and for which it has been thought he wrote his 
tract bearing title 'Luculentissima quaeda terrae totius de- 
scriptio . . . cum privilegio Invictis Romanoru Impera 
Maximiliani per acto annos: ne quis imprimat: aut im- 
primere procuret codices has: cum globis cosmographicis : 
Noribergae 1515.' 'A most luminous description of the 
whole earth . . . with the privilege of the Invincible Em- 
peror of the Romans, Maximilian, for eight years to the 
effect that nobody shall print or have any of these books 
printed, with the cosmographic globe. '^^ On the leaf pre- 
ceding "fol. 1" is the representation of a mounted globe. 

One of Schoner's globes of 1515 is to be found in the 
Grand Ducal Library of Weimar, and one in the City 
Museum of Frankfurt (Fig. 43). Wieser,^^ after a careful 
comparison, finds these globes to be practically alike in all 
details. Each is 27 cm. in diameter, having the usual mount- 
ings of brass, the whole resting on a wooden base. While 
neither signed nor dated, they answer the description con- 
tained in Schoner's little tract referred to above. That region 
on the globe which we may designate North America, he 
calls "Farias" ; the South American continent bears the name 

[ 83 ] 





Fig. 43. Globe of Johann Schoner in Hemispheres, 1515. 







^oHnSriya an iff? 

!l!,lllilillll ll l l lLi !l lli 



1 

erivr 



. y ^ .^ I «/4i«k i# «4iiik««i«niM:i^«Vifti#M«ii« ip»«^«»«»wti^ 



Fig. 42. Portrait of Johann Schoner. 



Globes of the Early Sixteenth Century. 

"America" and the austral land the name "BrasiUe regio." 
In addition to these principal regions he has represented 
the land discovered by the Cortereals, designating the same 
as "Litus incognitum." Cuba bears the name "Isabella" and 
Haiti the name "Spagnolla." The feature which seems to 
give special interest to these globes of Schoner is the repre- 
sentation of a strait between "America" and "Brasilie 
regio." To the significance of this particular representation 
Wieser has given very careful consideration. He cites 
numerous passages from the tract of Schoner, and from the 
'Copia der newen Zeitung aus Presillig Landt,'" a publi- 
cation which he finds good reason for believing appeared 
before 1515, and in which he finds an acceptable explana- 
tion of the origin of this geographical notion represented 
by Schoner, which antedates the Magellan expedition by a 
period of five years. 

It is a point to be especially noted that the dominant 
cosmographical idea of the map makers of the first quarter 
of the century represented the New World regions as inde- 
pendent of Asia. It is the idea set forth in the Portuguese 
maps, such as the Cantino and the Canerio; it is the idea 
which we find represented in the Waldseemiiller maps and 
practically in all the Lusitano-Germanic maps of the pe- 
riod.*° Schoner had written in his tract of 1515, "Hunc in 
modum terra quadriparita cognoscitur, et sunt tres primae 
partes continentes, id est terra firma. Sed quarta est insula, 
quia omniquoque mari circumdata conspicitur." "It has now 
been ascertained that the earth is divided into four parts, 
and the first three parts are continents, that is, main lands, 
but the fourth part is an island because we see it surrounded 
on all sides by the sea."*^*' With regard to the relation of 
"Farias" to Asia, he states, "Farias insula quae non est pars 
vel portio prioris, sed specialis magna portio terrae huius 
quartae partis mundi." "Farias is not a part or portion of 
the aforesaid country, but a large independent portion of 
the earth, in that fourth part of the world."* 

[ 85 ] 



)67 



Terrestrial and Celestial Globes. 

Of the globes constructed by Schoner, none is more impor- 
tant than that bearing date 1520 (Fig. 44).*'^ The wooden 
ball on which the map has been drawn and colored by hand 
has a diameter of about 87 cm. and rests upon a wooden 
base. Near the south pole is the date 1 520 in large gilt let- 
ters and an inscription stating that it was made at the ex- 
pense of Johannes Seyler by Jo. Schoner.®" It is apparent 
that the same sources were used for the drafting of the map 
on this globe that had been used in the case of his earlier 
globes, but the geographical infonnation on this last globe 
is much more detailed. The New World appears in five 
distinct parts, the first of which is called "Terra Corte- 
realis," the second "Terra de Cuba," the third "Insulae 
Canibalorum sine Antiglia," the fourth "Terra nova, Amer- 
ica vel Brasilia sive Papagelli Terra," and the fifth "Bra- 
silia inferior." The globe is richly decorated in colors, and 
its numerous descriptive legends, most of them in Latin, 
give such geographical information as may be found in 
most of the important maps of this early period. '° 

In 1523 Schoner issued a little tract of four pages which 
he called 'De nuper sub Castiliae ac Portugaliae Regibus 
Serenissimis repertis Insulis ac Regionibus, Joannis Schoner 
Charolipolitani epistola et Globus Geographicus, seriem 
navigationum annotantibus. Clarissimo atque disertissimo 
viro Dno Rymero de Streytpergk, ecclesiae Babenbergensis 
Canonico dictae. Timiripae, Anno Incamat. Dni. 1523.' 
'An epistle of John Schoner of Carlstadt concerning the 
islands and regions recently discovered by the Most Serene 
Kings of Castile and of Portugal, and a geographical globe 
for the use of marking the course of those navigations. 
Dedicated to the most distinguished and eloquent Reymer 
von Streytperg, canon of the Church of Bamberg. Timiripae 
(Kirch-ehrenbach). In the year of the Lord's incarnation 
1523.'^^ Though Schoner alone gives us such information 
as we possess concerning this globe, it has been the subject 
of much controversy, and if recovered it doubtless would 

[ 86 ] 




Fig. 44. Western Hemisphere of Johann Schoner's Globe, 1520. 



Globes of the Early Sixteenth Century. 

prove to be an object of much interest. There is, in the 
opinion of the author, scarcely the slightest ground for 
accepting the conclusions of Henry Stevens and Professor 
V. Wieser, that the globe gores, now in the possession of 
the New York Public Library (Fig. 44^), and described by 
them as the lost globe of Schoner of 1 523, are of Schonerian 
origin. The critical studies of Harrisse are sufficiently con- 
vincing to set this question at rest.^^ Schoner concludes his 
little tract in the following words: "Ego tam mirifice orbis 
pervagationi nonnihil volens adiicere, ut quae lectu videan- 
tur mirabilia, aspectu credantur prohabiliora, Globum hunc 
in orbis modum effingere studui, exemplar baud fallibile 
aemulatus, quod Hispaniarum solertia cuidam viro honore 
conspicuo transmisit. Nee ob id quem antea glomeraveram 
abolitum iri volens, quippe qui es tempore, quantum phas 
erat homini abdita mundi penetrare, abunde expressit, modo 
sese consona admissione patientur, quod invenienda inventis 
non obstent. Accipe igitur hunc a me formatum globum ea 
animi benignitate, qua eum laborem ad tui nominis honorem 
lubens aggressus sum. Cognoscam profecto meas lucubra- 
tiunculas tuae celsitudini nullatenus despectui fore. Vale." 
"Being desirous of making some small addition to this 
wonderful survey of the earth, so that what appears very 
extraordinary to the reader may appear more likely, when 
thus illustrated, I have been at the pains to construct this 
globe, having copied a very accurate one which an ingenious 
Spaniard has sent to a person of distinction. I do not how- 
ever wish to set aside the globe I constructed some time since, 
as it fully showed all that had, at that time, been discov- 
ered: so that the former, as far as it goes, agrees with the 
latter. Please then to accept this globe in the same friendly 
spirit in which I undertook to construct it for your gratifica- 
tion. But I am sure you will not despise my humble attempt. 
Farewell."''^ This statement assures us that he had con- 
structed a globe at the time of issuing his tract, and it gives 
us a fairly definite idea of its New World configurations, 

[ 87 1 



Terrestrial and Celestial Globesv 

and further, that in the main it agreed with his earlier 
globes. It seems probable, however, that in some manner 
he indicated an Asiatic connection of the new lands, an idea 
which is so frequently expressed in the maps of the next 
quarter of a century, especially in the globe maps, an idea 
not to be finally set at rest until the discovery of Bering 
put an end to the controversy. 

How Schoner, and others, came to the conclusion that 
"Parias" (North America) is not "a large independent por- 
tion of the earth in that fourth part of the world," but has 
an Asiatic connection, and how they set down that conclu- 
sion in their maps will receive consideration in the following 
chapter. 

Though not a maker of globes, in so far as we have defi- 
nite knowledge, Albrecht Diirer turned his attention to the 
drafting of maps, two of which have for us here a certain 
interest. In the year 1515 Johannes Stabius designed a map 
of the Old World on a stereographic projection (Fig. 45), 
one of the first of its kind, which Diirer is said to have en- 
graved. While the map itself is of little importance it is 
of interest as an attempt to represent in perspective a 
spherical earth.^* 

Diirer likewise undertook the drafting and engraving of 
a celestial map (Fig. 46), than which of this character there 
appears to be none earlier known. It was not so drawn as 
to make possible its application to the surface of a sphere, 
but its reshaping for that purpose could not have been for 
him a difficult proposition. He, with others of this time, 
was giving thought to the problem of globe-gore con- 
struction. 



[ 88 ] 




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Globes of the Early Sixteenth Century. 

NOTES 

1. The illustrations given are typical, and to one familiar with the works 
of the period on geographical and astronomical subjects, others suggest 
themselves. 

2. For popular accounts of the Este family of Ferrara, see Gardner, E. G. 
Princes and Poets of Ferrara. London, 1904; Cartwright, J. Isabella d'Este. 
London, 1903. 

3. Harrisse. Discovery, pp. 422-425 ; same author, Les Corte-Real et leur 
voyages au Nouveau Monde. Paris, 1883, with reproduction of the western 
half of the map, in colors ; Stevenson, E. L. Maps illustrating early dis- 
covery and exploration in America. New Brunswick, 1906. No. i of this 
series is a reproduction of the Cantino map in the size of the original. 

4. Fischer, J. The Discoveries of the Norsemen in America. London, 1903. 
pp. 112-118. Professor Fischer enjoys the distinction of being the foremost 
living authority on Ptolemy. 

5. D'Arco, C. Delle arti e degli artefici di Mantova. Mantova, 1857. Vol. 

n. p- 53- 

6. Bertolotti, A. Artisti in relazione coi Gonzaga Signori di Mantova. 
Modena, 1885. p. 143. (In: Estr. dagli Atti e Memorie delle Deputazioni 
di storia patria per le Provincie Modenesi e Parmensi. Serie III, Vol. Ill, 
parte 1.) 

7. Harrisse. Discovery, p 434. 

8. Denza, F. Globi celesti della Specola Vaticana. (In : Publicazioni 
della Specola Vaticana. Torino, 1894. Vol. IV, p. xvii.) 

9. Fiorini, op. cit., pp. 88-89. 

10. See the edition of Ptolemy. Geographia — MDVIII. Rome. Chap. xii. 
u. Fiorini, op. cit., pp. 94-96, the citation being made from Badia, Jodoco 

del. La bottega di Alessandro di Francesco Rosselli merciaje e stampatore 
(1525). (In: Miscellanea fiorentina di erudizione e storia. Luglio, 1894. 
Vol. n, p. 14.) 

12. Zach, F. V. Monatliche Korrespondence. Gotha, 1806. Vol. XIII, p. 
157. Harrisse. Discovery, pp. 445-446. 

13. Fiorini, op. cit., p. 99. 

14. Fiorini, op. cit., p. 101. 

15. Fiorini, op. cit., p. 72. 

16. Fiorini, op. cit., p. 102. Of the further interest taken by Cardinal 
Salviati in geography, see Stevenson, op. cit.. No. 7. 

17. Trithemius. Epistolae familiares. Haganoae, 1536. p. 294. 

18. This is part of the letter of August 12. 

19. D'Avezac, M. A. P. Martin Hylacomylus Walzemiiller ses ouvrages 
et ses collaborateurs. Paris, 1867; Gallois. Les Geographes. Chap. iv. 
"L'ecole Alsacienne-Lorraine" ; Schmidt, C. Histoire litteraire de I'Alsace a 
la fin du XV^ et au commencement du XVI^ siecle. Paris, 1879. 

20. Schmidt, op. cit., Vol. II, p. 111; Humboldt, A. v. Kritische Unter- 
suchungen. Berlin, 1852. Vol. II, p. 363 ; Gallois, L. Le Gymnase Vosgien. 
(In: Bulletin de la Societe de Geographic de I'Est. Paris, 1900. pp. 88 if .) j 
D'Avezac, op. cit., p. 11. 

21. A canon of the cathedral of St. Die. Lud gives us the information 
that he was the translator of the Vespucci narrative from the French into 
the Latin. 

[ 89 ] 



Terrestrial and Celestial Globes. 

22. Gravier, N. F. Histoire de Saint-Die. Epinal, 1836. p. 202. The author 
refers to the character of Lud and to the influence of the St. Die press. 
Copies of Lud's most important little tract may be found in the British 
Museum, and in the Imperial Library of Vienna ; it was printed in the St. 
Die in the year 1507. 

23. The full title of this significant volume reads : 'Cosmographiae Intro- 
ductio cum quibusdam geometriae ac astronomiae principiis ad earn rem 
necessariis, insuper quatuor Americi Vespucci navigationes. Universalis Cos- 
mographie descriptio tam in solido q3 piano eis etiam insertis que Ptholomeo 
ignota a nuperis reperta sunt.' 'Introduction to Cosmography with certain 
necessary principles of geometry and astronomy to which are added the 
Four Voyages of Amerigo Vespucci a representation of the entire world, 
both in the solid (globe ?) and projected on the plane, including also lands 
which were unknown to Ptolemy, and have been recently discovered.' Two 
editions of the work appeared in 1507, and others at later dates. An excel- 
lent reproduction of Waldseemiiller's book in facsimile, with English trans- 
lation, was published by the United States Catholic Historical Society under 
the title, 'The Cosmographiae Introductio of Martin Waldseemiiller in 
Facsimile followed by the Four Voyages of Amerigo Ve.spucci with their 
Translation into English.' Ed. by C. G. Herbermann. New York, 1907. 

24. This is one of the best of the early printed editions of Ptolemy. 

25. May it not have been the Canerio chart to which allusion was made 
by Lud, or a chart of exactly that type % See Stevenson, E. L. Marine World 
Chart of Nicolo de Canerio Januensis (ca.) 1502. With Facsimile of the 
unique original, measuring 1 15 x 225 cm. New York, 1908. 

26. Stevenson, E. L. Martin Waldseemiiller and the early Lusitano-Ger- 
manic Cartography of the New World. New York, 1904. (In : Bulletin of 
the American Geographical Society. New York, 1908. pp. 193-215.) 

27. Schmidt, C. (In: Memoires de la Societe d'Archeologie lorraine. 
Nancy, 1875. p. 227.) 

28. Fischer, J. and Wieser, F. R. v. The oldest map with the name 
America of the year 1507 and the Carta Marina of the year 1516 by M. 
Waldseemiiller (Ilacomilus). Innsbruck, 1903. Text in German and Eng- 
lish, the maps in facsimile. The authors in their text have considered such 
matters as the Wolfegg collective volume, a description of the two maps, 
the sources of WaldseemuUer, and the influence of the maps on the subse- 
quent cartography, especially of the New World. 

29. Printed on fol. "Aii." 

30. Printed on the back of folded leaf at the beginning of "Caput IX." 

31. Gallois. Les geographes. p. 48; Fischer and v. Wieser, op. cit., p. 14. 

32. The crude character of the map is in striking contrast with the world 
map of 1507. 

33. This is an excellent reproduction of the gores, copy of which was 
courteously sent the author by Prince Liechtenstein. 

34. Printed in the lower corner of the chart on the left, "Generalem 
igitur totius orbis typum, quem ante annos aucos absolutum non sine grandi 
labore ex Ptolomei traditione ... in lucem edideramus et in mille exem- 
plaria exprimi curavimus ..." 

35. Harrisse. B. A. V. No. 62. 

36. Harrisse. Discovery, p. 465. 

37. Harrisse. B. A. V. No. 61. 

[ 90 ] 



Globes of the Early Sixteenth Century. 

38. Harrisse. B. A. V. No. 32, Ad. 

39. Harrisse. Discovery, p. 466. 

40. De Costa, B. F. The Lenox Globe. (In : Magazine of American His- 
tory. New York, 1879. PP- 529-540.) De Costa had the globe map redrawn 
and printed in plane projection. See for reproduction, Winsor, Norden- 
skiold. Encyclopaedia Britannica. An excellent reproduction from a direct 
photograph of the globe may be found in Stevenson, E. L. Typical early 
maps of the New World. (In : Bulletin of the American Geographical 
Society. New York, 1907. pp. 202-224.) 

41. Estreicher, T. Ein Erdglobus aus dem Anfange des XVI Jh. in der 
Jagellonischen Bibliothek. (In: Bulletin International de I'Academie des 
Sciences de Cracovie. Cracovie, 1900. pp. 96-105.) 

The construction of the clockwork to be found in this small copper sphere 
in La Nature, 1892. No. 996, p. 75. The globe is referred to by Stevenson, 
E. L., in Martin Waldseemiiller and the Lusitano-Germanic Cartography of 
the New World. (In: Bulletin of the American Geographical Society. New 
York, 1904. pp. 193-215.) 

42. Waldseemiiller, op. cit., Caput vii. 

43. Luksch, M. J. Zwei Denkmale alter Kartographie. Wien, 1886. (In: 
Mitteilung der k. k. Geog. Gesellschaft. Wien, 1886. pp. 364-373.) ; Varn- 
hagen, F. A. Jo. Schoner e F. Apianus. Wien, 1872. On p. 52 the opinion 
is expressed that the globe was made in Brixen from the fact that this 
relatively unimportant town is inscribed. Harrisse. Discovery, pp. 491, 492; 
Nordenskiold. Facsimile Atlas, p. 76. 

44. Marcel, G. Un globe manuscrit de I'ecole de Schoner. Paris, 1889. 
(In: Bulletin de geographie historique et descriptive. Paris, 1889. p. 173.); 
same author, Reproduction de carte et de globes relatif a la decouverte de 
I'Amerique. Paris, 1894. pp. 11-14. 

45. Harrisse. Discovery, p. 490. 

46. Nordenskiold. Facsimile Atlas, p. 76 ; reproduced on pi. XXXVII ; 
same author, Om en marklig globakarta fran borjan af sextonde seklet. 
Stockholm, 1884. The latter has been translated under the title, A remarkable 
globe map of the sixteenth century, with facsimile, by E. A. Elfwing, and 
published in Journal of the American Geographical Society. New York, 
1884. 

47. Here the name "America" is more clearly assigned to the entire con- 
tinent than in the Waldseemiiller map. 

48. See below, p. 176. 

49. Major, R. H. Memoir on a mappemonde by Leonardo da Vinci, being 
the earliest map hitherto known containing the name America: now in the 
Royal Collection at Windsor. London, 1865; Wieser. Magalhaes-Strasse. 
pi. Ill, a reproduction of the gores showing the New World, joined in 
a hemisphere ; d'Adda, Marquis Girolamo. Leonardo da Vinci e la Cos- 
mografia. (In: La Perzeveranza. Milano, 1870.) ; Richter, J. P. Literary 
Works of Da Vinci. London, 1883. Both d'Adda and Richter doubt the Da 
Vinci origin of these gores. 

50. Harrisse, op. cit., p. 504. 

51. See above, p. 67. 

52. Nordenskiold, op. cit., p. 76 ; reproduced on pi. XXXVIII ; Cata- 
logue de livres appartenant a M. H. Tross. Paris, 1881, item 4924, with a 
reproduction of the gores. 

[ 91 ] 



Terrestrial and Celestial Globes. 

53. Harrisse, op. cit., pp. 494-496. 

54. Marcel, G. Louis Boulengier d'Alby. Paris, 1890. (In: Bulletin de 
geographic historique et descriptive. Paris, 1890.) 

55. This statement reads : "Habes candide lector tabellam preinsculptam 
tibi latitudinem graduum regionium ... In globe vero diei quantitatem 
et noctis ... sic comprehendere potes omni de regione tarn per globum 
quam per sexagenarlum." "You have, dear Reader, before you, a small 
plate on which are inscribed the degrees of latitude of the countries . . . 
on the globe (you see) the duration of the day and night . . . thereby you 
will be able to ascertain (the position of) every country by the globe as 
well as by the sexennium." 

56. Tessier, A. Di Cesare Vecellio e de' suoi dipinti e disegni in una Col- 
lezione di libri dei secoli XV e XVI. Rome, 1876. (In: Bollettino della 
Societe geografica italiana. Rome, 1876. Serie II, Vol. I, pp. 39-42.) 

Tessier's discourse was delivered at the Venetian Atheneum, 1875. Jacoli, 
F., likewise refers to this globe in Gazzetta di Venezia, January 15, 1876. 
It is not known just what disposition has been made of the globes by 
Admiral Acton. 

57. Las Casas. Historia. Tomo IV, lib. Ill, cap. ci, p. 377 ; Herrera, A. 
Descriptione las Indias Ocidentales. Madrid, 1730. Tomo II, lib. II, cap. 
xix, p. 52. 

58. The first voyage around the world by Magellan. Tr. by Stanley of 
Alderley, Lord. London, 1874. (In: Hakluyt Society Publications. London, 
1874. Vol. 52, p. xliv.) ; Pigafetta, Antonio. Magellan's Voyage around the 
world. The original text of the Ambrosian MS., with English translation, 
notes, bibliography, and index. Ed. by Robertson, J. A. Cleveland, 1906. 

59. Documentos ineditos per la Historia de Espana. Madrid, 1847. Vol. I, 
p. 265. 

60. Harrisse, op. cit., p. 544. 

61. Doppelmayr. Nachrichten. pp. 45-50; Varnhagen, F. A. de. Jo. Schoner 
c P. Apianus (Benewitz) influencia de urn e outro e de varios de seus con- 
temporaneos na adopqao do nome America. Vienna, 1872 ; Stevens, H. 
Johann Schoner, professor of Mathematics at Nuremberg ; a reproduction of 
his globe of 1523 long lost; his dedicatory letter to Reymer von Streyt- 
perck and the 'De Moluccis' of Maximilianus Transylvanus, with a new 
translation and notes of the globe. Ed. with an introduction and bibliog- 
raphy by Coote, C. H. London, 1888. pp. xxxix-xliv contains a short 
biography of Schoner ; Algemeine Deutsche Biographic, "Schoner." 

62. Harrisse. B. A. V. No. 80. The full title with bibliographical refer- 
ences are here given. In addition to the mere title we read "Cum Globis 
cosmographicis : sub mulcta quinquaginta florenorum Rhen. et amissione 
omnium exemplarium." "With a cosmographical globe : under a fine of five 
hundred Rhenish florins and forfeiting all copies." 

63. Wieser. Magalhaes-Strasse. See especially chap, iii, "Der Globus 
Schoners vom J. 1515," and reproduction, pi. II; Reproduction in Jomard, 
Nos. 15-16. 

64. Harrisse. B. A. V. p. xlix, note 156; also Nos. 99, 100. 

65. Stevenson. Martin Waldseemiiller and the early Lusitano-Germanic 
Cartography. 

66. Schoner. Luculentissima. fol. 60. 

67. Schoner. Luculentissima. verso of fol. 60. 

[ 92 ] 



Globes of the Early Sixteenth Century. 

68. Wieser, op. cit. ; Ghillany. Geschichte des Seefahrers Ritter Martin 
Behaim. pp. 8-12. Ghillany reproduces the western hemisphere of the globe 
in the original colors; Kohl, J. G. History of the Discovery of Maine. (In: 
Documentary history of the State of Maine. Portland, 1869.) Vol. I, pp. 
158-163. This contains a much reduced reproduction of Ghillany's facsimile 
of the western hemisphere; Nordenskiold, op. cit., p. 80; Santarem. Atlas, 
pi. 52 (H. S. A. copy) ; Lelewel. Geographie du moyen age. pi. 46. 

69. The inscription reads as given by Ghillany. 

70. Practically all of the works cited relating to Schoner treat more or 
less fully of the geographical features of Schoner's globes. Wieser's work is 
particularly valuable. 

71. Stevens, op. cit., gives this letter in facsimile with translation; Wieser, 
op. cit., pp. 118-122, reprints the Latin of this letter. 

72. Harrisse, op. cit., pp. 519-528. 

73. Wieser, op. cit., p. 121. 

74. Oberhummer, E. Leonardo da Vinci and the art of the renaissance in 
its relation to geography. (In: The Geographical Journal. London, 1909. 
See pp. 561-569 on Albrecht Diirer.) 




[ 93 ] 



Chapter VII 

Globes of the Second Quarter of the 
Sixteenth Century- 
Globes indicating (a) an Asiatic connection of the New World, 

(b) globes expressing a doubt of such Old World connection, 

(c) globes showing an independent position of the New 
\Vorld. — Franciscus Monachus. — Hakluyt's reference. — The Gilt 
globe. — Parmentier. — Francesco Libri. — Nancy globe. — Globes 
of Gemma Frisius. — Robertus de Bailly. — Schoner globe 
of 1533. — Scheipp. — Furtembach. — Paris Wooden globe. — Vopel 
globes. — Santa Cruz. — Hartmann gores. — Important globe of 
Ulpius. — Cardinal Bembo's globes. — Mercator's epoch-making 
activity. — Fracastro. — Ramusio's references to globes. — Gia- 
nelli. — Florence celestial globe. 

j4 S in the first quarter of the sixteenth century, so in 
/% the second we find engraved brass and copper 
A m globes, globes with manuscript maps, and those 
with printed or engraved gore maps. Since the latter in this 
period have especially found favor, attention is more and 
more directed toward the shaping of the segments or gores 
with that mathematical nicety which, as previously stated, 
would admit of a perfect or almost perfect adjustment 
when they were applied to the surface of a prepared ball. 

To the independent position of the New World as repre- 
sented on the globe maps prior to 1525 attention has been 
called in the preceding chapter, but the idea of such inde- 
pendence, it may here be noted, is one contrary to that very 
generally though erroneously entertained by historians who 
have written of the period, an error doubtless in large meas- 

[ 94 ] 



Second Quarter of the Sixteenth Century. 

ure due to a failure on their part to give proper heed to 
the record of the maps as expressing the geographical 
notions commonly accepted. Harrisse has well stated the 
case in referring to the geographical opinions of the earliest 
explorers, observing that the moment search began for a 
waterway leading from Oceanus Occidentalis to Oceanus 
Oriental is, that moment opinion began to become conviction 
that a new continental region had been found, that a New 



3 





■,-S}„ i— '^crtai-,l<S.3>-''>'« •'■••gftVay? 



ytf-iji 



^^g^^. 















,ar>^ *-'%■' 



>^ 



X 



AtoNl>0 NOV© 



T 



Fig. 47. Bartholomew Columbus Sketch Map, 1506. 



World had been discovered,^ and practically all of the early 
explorers had hope of finding such a waterway. It is very 
true that more than two hundred years passed from Colum- 
bus' day before there was positive proof of an independence 
of the newly found land, but the earliest map makers out- 
lined it as if believing in its independence of an Old World 
or Asiatic connection." The so-called Bartholomew Colum- 
bus sketch maps,^ probably drawn in the first decade of the 
sixteenth century (Fig. 47), alone can be cited, among the 
maps of any particular importance in the first quarter of 

[ 95 ] 



Terrestrial and Celestial Globes. 

this century, as distinctly indicating a belief in an Asiatic 
connection. Attention was likewise called in the preceding 
chapter to the fact that toward the' close of the century's 
first quarter the idea that a veritably independent new 
continent had been found was beginning to be doubted.* 
This doubt seemed to follow close upon the publication of 
the report of Magellan's expedition.^ It indeed appears to 
be generally accepted that to the report of that remarkable 
circumnavigation, to the letters of Cortes respecting his 
Mexican expedition," and to the failure of his and of other 



y*^DE ORBIS 

SITVAC DEtCRIPTIONE. AD KE> 

ueren^jf. D.trcbirp*f{ofmn VmormiUtwa^t/H 
fifti,MvUibioTdiJtisTrictfcaJu,epijieUfin£<jiu 
tlutdrnU. loqita ?toIetiui^c^terorutna fuptriorS 
geognpbonmi bdHucinaiio rcftSitur, di.^ pr/fr. 
n^^Kcens'iiurntiiimit/iUTittnfuhi. D< ditto* 
IK Ptfr loOTW. Df yif« Pttitdtft ,u iiTHei\fttaie mi 
liiTUan tJ prvpcrtitfni g r«iuan ctcit, prtf cUri <7 
Kmojitu dipu Teimfnitrr, 





CVM PRIVILEGIO INVICTISSl' 

jirnojiunoriim inficrijoril Ciroli m*li, «J ^iu«= 
^tmtuflt^n uct typti fmW*l,J(rtexaii«<icM nt 
rethctcoiicrt gn^dphUciftucigifit^f'^'^ 
Sd antani4miiBnmfUni,tt*if*'^i'"' 
ftffnmutttafrMUt, 



Fig. 48. Hemispheres of Franciscus Monachus, 1526. 



Spanish attempts to find a strait north of the equator 
through which one might pass from Oceanus Occidentalis 
to Oceanus Orientalis,^ the changed conception of the 
geography of the New World was due. 

This changed conception seems to have found first expres- 
sion, on a map, in a little volume prepared by Franciscus 
Monachus, a friar of Mechlin, about 1525. The title of this 
volume reads in part,^ 'De orbis situ ac descriptione. ad 
Reuerendiss. D. archiepiscopum Fanormitanum, Francisci, 
Monachi ordinis Franciscani, epistola sane qua lucu- 
lenta . . .' 'A very excellent letter from Franciscus, a 

[ 96 ] 



Second Quarter of the Sixteenth Century. 

monk of the Franciscan Order, to the Most Reverend Arch- 
bishop of Palermo, touching the site and description of the 
world,' with a colophon reading "Excudebat Martinus 
Caesar, expensis honesti viri Rolandi Bollaert . . ." "Mar- 
tinus Caesar prepared this at the expense of the upright man 
Roland Bollert." Its two small woodcut maps representing 
the world in hemispheres, respectively the Old and the New 
World (Fig. 48), are of striking historical interest, while the 
text contains many references which are of importance for 
the light they cast upon the geographical opinions of the 
time respecting the New World. Here, as noted, the New 
World is first represented on a map as having distinctly an 
Asiatic connection, the southern continent (South America) 
being separated from the northern only by that narrow 
strait which we find so prominently represented on the 
Maiollo map of 1527, and there called "stretto dubitoso."^ 
While these hemispheres cannot themselves be referred to 
as a globe, they may serve to give us a general idea of the 
geographical representations on the globe, which, as appears 
probable, was at that time constructed by the author of the 
text. To the Ecclesiastical Prince, to whom Franciscus dedi- 
cated his little volume, information was sent concerning his 
globe on which he had drawn by hand a map of the world 
as he said, the reply to his letter containing the following 
statement, "Orbis globum, in quo terrae ac maria luculenter 
depicta sunt, una cum epistola accepimus." "We accept the 
globe of the world on which the land and the seas are ele- 
gantly depicted, together with the epistle."" Being a gift 
it would seem reasonable to conclude that the globe was 
not duplicated and offered for sale and that the example 
referred to was therefore probably unique. The text of the 
'De orbis situ . . . ,' as it appears, was printed because it 
was thought there was much contained therein that was new 
and not in harmony with geographical ideas hitherto ex- 
pressed. The first edition was undated, nor was the second 
dated, but it agreed in practically all particulars with the 

[ 97 ] 



Terrestrial and Celestial Globes. 

first excepting a slight alteration in the title. A third edition 
was issued in the year 1565, and is still known in many 
copies, of which Gallois gives an excellent reprint in his 
biography of Orontius Finius." It is in the first and second 
editions that the hemispheres appear; they are wanting in 
the third, but as a substitute therefor a small globe resting 
on a base appears on the verso of the title-page, which in its 
general features may be a representation of Franciscus' 
globe. 

Hakluyt, in his 'Discourse on Western Planting,' alludes 
to "an olde excellent globe in the Queenes privie gallory 
at Westminster which also seemeth to be of Verarsanus 
makinge, havinge the coste described in Italian, which 
laieth oute the very selfe same streite necke of lande in 
latitude of 40. degrees, with the sea joynninge harde on 
bothe sides, as it dothe on Panama and Nombre di Dios; 
which would be a matter of singule importannce, yf it 
shoulde be true, as it is not unlikely."^" To this particular 
globe we do not seem to be able to find any other allusion. 

In the geographical department of the Bibliotheque Na- 
tionale there may be found an exceedingly well-executed 
globe, neither signed nor dated, but which appears to have 
been constructed about the year 1528." It is an unmounted 
gilded copper sphere (Fig. 49), having a diameter of about 
23 cm. Its title reads "Nova et Integra universi orbs de- 
scriptio," "A new and complete description of the entire 
world," which, with all legends and local names, is en- 
graved in small capitals. Based upon the description we 
possess of the Schoner globe of 1523, and upon the close 
resemblance of its coast outlines to those of the Weimar 
globe of 1533, there is reason for assigning it to the 
Schonerian school. It, however, is to be noted that the 
nomenclature of the northeast coast of North America is 
very different from that which appears on the last-men- 
tioned globe, and that it more nearly resembles in that 
region the simple cordiform map of Orontius Finius of the 

[ 98 ] 



fcif^ 










*''^^w — ^ — -^ 





-i>V", 



Fig. 49. Gilt Globe, ca. 1528. 




Fig. 56a. Western Hemisphere of \'opel Terrestrial Globe. 



Second Quarter of the Sixteenth Century. 

year 1536." The latest geographical information which it 
records seems to relate to the expedition of Verrazano, In 
the region corresponding to the present New England, we 
find the legend "Terra Francesca nuper Lustrata." 
The Gulf of Mexico is called "Sinus S. Michaelis," and 
the Caribbean Sea, "Mare Herbidium." In South America 
are the conspicuous legends "America Inventa 1497," 
"Brazilio Regio," and "Terra Nova." The great Ant- 
arctic land bears the inscription "Regio Patalis." The 
Amazon appears as a river of considerable length, with 
numerous tributaries. The course of Magellan's voyage, so 
frequently laid down on the maps of the period, here finds 
record in the threadlike line which encircles the globe. As 
in the hemispheres of Franciscus, so here, America is laid 
down as a part of the Asiatic continent. The workmanship 
of the globe is equal to the best that one could find in the 
Italy, France or Germany of that day, while the few Ger- 
man words among the numerous Latin names, as "Baden," 
"Braunschweig," and "Wien," give some support for the 
claim that it is of German origin. A Spanish origin, as has 
sometimes been claimed for it, can hardly be accepted. 

Parmentier, a native of the famous seaport Dieppe, had 
in his day, as a maker of charts, a very substantial reputa- 
tion. Whether one should conclude from references to him 
as a cartographer that he busied himself with the construc- 
tion of globes cannot be definitely determined, as these ref- 
erences indicate that his maps were merely constructed on a 
projection which enabled him in some measure to represent 
the curved surface of the earth. Schefer, in his work 'Le 
discours de la navigation de Jean et Raoul Permentier,' 
says, "Permentier estoit bon cosmographe et geographe, et 
par lui ont este composez plusieurs mappes monde en globe 
et en plat et plusieurs cartes marines, sur les quelles plu- 
sieurs ont navigue seurement." "Parmentier was a good 
cosmographer and geographer, and many maps of the world 
both in the form of globes and as plane maps were made 

[ 99 ] 



Terrestrial and Celestial Globes. 

by him, also numerous marine charts by means of which 
many sailed the seas with safety."^^ 

Vasari gives us information concerning one Francesco 
Libri, member of a famous Veronese artist family, who won 
distinction as a globe maker in the early sixteenth century, 
and who apparently was most active in this field of en- 
deavor about the year 1530. Although all trace of the 
globes he is said to have constructed is lost, Vasari's refer- 
ence is worthy citation. 

"Among other things," says that interesting, if not al- 
ways accurate, Italian biographer, "he constructed a large 
globe of wood, being four feet in diameter; this he then 
covered externally with a strong glue, so that there should 
be no danger of crack or other injury. Now the globe or 
ball thus constructed was to serve as a terrestrial globe. 
Wherefore when it had been carefully divided and exactly 
measured under the direction and in the presence of Fra- 
castro and Baroldi, both well versed in physics and dis- 
tinguished as cosmographers and astrologers, it was after- 
ward to be painted by Francesco for a Venetian gentleman, 
Messer Andrea Navagero, a most learned orator and poet, 
who intended to make a present of the same to King 
Francis of France, to whom he was about to be sent as 
ambassador from the Republic. But scarcely had Navagero 
arrived in France and entered on his office, when he died. 
The work consequently remained unfinished, which was 
much to be regretted since, executed by Francesco, under 
the guidance and with the advice and assistance of two men 
so distinguished as were Fracastro and Baroldi, it would 
doubtless have turned out a very remarkable production. 
It remained unfinished, however, as I have said, and what 
is worse, even that which had been done received consid- 
erable injury, I know not of what kind, in the absence of 
Francesco; yet spoiled as it was, the globe was purchased 
by Messer Bartolommeo Lonichi who has never been pre- 
vailed upon to give it up, although he has been frequently 

[ 100 ] 




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Second Quarter of the Sixteenth Century. 

much entreated to do so, and offered large sums of money 
for it." 

"Francesco had made two smaller globes before com- 
mencing the large one; and of these one is now in the pos- 
session of Mazzanti, Archdeacon of the cathedral of Verona; 
the other belonging to the Count Raimondo dell a Torre, 
and is now the property of his son, the Count Giovanni 
Battista, by whom it is ver}^ greatly valued, seeing that this 
also was constructed with the assistance and after measure- 
ments of Fracastro, who was a very intimate friend of 
Count Raimondo."" 

As before noted, the exact date when Francesco con- 
structed his globes is unknown. Vasari, however, informs 
us, as noted above, that the large one was constructed for 
Andrea Navagero, who wished to present it to the King 
of France, and that very shortly after his arrival in France 
on his special mission his death occurred, which we know 
to have been the eighth of May, 1529. It must therefore 
have been in that year that Francesco completed the con- 
struction of his globe. It would be interesting to know the 
geographical configuration of the New World as laid down 
by Fracastro and Francesco on this large globe, remember- 
ing that it was not long after the mission of Navagero to 
King Francis that the first Cartier expedition sailed for the 
western continent. We cannot be certain, as stated, of its 
geographical data, but it seems probable that it followed the 
Verrazanian type as represented, for example, in the Maiollo 
map of 1527, or in the Verrazano map of 1529. 

The Lorraine Museum of Nancy possesses a fine globe, 
neither signed nor dated, but which usually is referred to 
as the Nancy globe (Figs. 50, 50^), and is thought to have 
been constructed about the year 1530.^^ It is a silver ball 16 
cm. in diameter, divided on the line of the equator into hemi- 
spheres, and is supported on a small statue of Atlas. The 
equator, the tropics, the polar circles, the zodiac, and one 
meridian circle passing through the western part of Asia 

[ 101 1 



Terrestrial and Celestial Globes. 

in the Old World and through the peninsula of Florida 
in the New World, are represented. It is an object of inter- 
est not only for its scientific value in giving us a geographi- 
cal record of the period, but it is also of interest for its fine 
workmanship, having its land areas gilded and its seas blue 
enameled, in which sea monsters and ships of artistic design 
appear. We have the record that in the year 1662, Charles 
IV, Duke of Lorraine, presented it to the church of Notre 
Dame de Sion in his residence city, and that by this church 
it was long used as a pyx.^^ There is a striking resemblance 
of its land configurations, and of its geographical nomencla- 
ture to that of the Gilt globe, of the Wooden globe, and of 
the World map of Orontius Finaeus of 1531. The New 
World is represented as a part of the Asiatic continent, and 
the central section of that region, to which we may refer as 
North America, is designated "Asia Orientalis" and "Asia 
Major." To the east of these names are numerous regional 
names, conspicuous among which are "Terra Francesca," 
"Hispania Major," and "Terra Florida." The Gulf of 
Mexico appears as "Mare Cathayum." Mexico bears the 
name "Hispania Nova," while the sea to the west is named 
"Mare Indicum Australe." The South American continent 
is called "America Nova," and the names are very numerous 
which have been given to the various sections, among which 
we find "Terra Firma," "Fapagelli," "Terra Canibale," 
"Farias," and "Peru Provincia." The large austral land 
bears the name "Brasielie Regio," which name is placed 
southeast of Africa, and the name "Patalis Regio" appears 
southwest of South America. 

Gemma Frisius (1508-1555), a native of Docum (Fig. 
51), and for a number of years professor of medicine and 
mathematics in the University of Louvain,^® issued a little 
book, in the year 1530, bearing the title 'De principiis 
Astronomiae et Cosmographiae, deque usu globi, ab eodem 
editi, item de orbis divisione et insulis, rebusque nuper 
inventis . . . Antverp, 1530.'*° It seems probable that this 

[ 102 ] 







\^-. 







■ ■ i^i^'M^Pifc 







CO 
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Oh 
1/1 



X) 



O 

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*^ 



Second Quarter of the Sixteenth Century. 

was issued to serve as explanatory text for a globe or globes 
he had constructed or was preparing to construct. In it we 
have one of the earliest technical yet practical explanations 
of the parts and uses of the globe, and a somewhat detailed 
statement how such instruments may be serviceably em- 
ployed in cosmographical studies. On the title-page there 
appears the representation of a globe resting on a base hav- 
ing three feet, which has been thought to be a representa- 
tion of his completed work."^ We are told in his 'Epistola 
salutatoria,' at least in an implied manner, that there were 
to be numerous copies of the globes, seeing that they were 
intended for the trade, and Roscelli's statement would lead 
us to believe that they had found their way into Italy. All 
copies, however, appear to have been lost until a few years 
since, when both a terrestrial and a celestial globe of 
Frisius' making was found in the Gymnasium Francisceum 
of Zerbst, to which discovery a very considerable interest 
and importance attaches. In a paper read before the Inter- 
national Congress of Americanists in 1904, Dr. W. Walter 
Ruge, all too briefly, describes them, from which paper the 
following information is taken." 

The terrestrial globe, he notes, is not well preserved, 
being in certain parts so injured as to render the inscrip- 
tions illegible; but in this fact he, however, finds a certain 
compensation, as these injuries are of such character as to 
disclose the manner of construction. The globe ball, he 
finds, consists of two hemispheres of papier-mache 3 mm. 
in thickness over which is a layer of plaster 1^ mm. in 
thickness. On the smooth surface thus furnished the twelve 
gores of which the map is composed had been pasted, these 
gores extending from pole to pole."^ Though undated, the 
following inscription gives information concerning the map 
maker and the engravers. "Gemma Frisius Medicus ac 
Mathematicus ex varijs descripsit geographicorum observa- 
tionibus, atque in banc formam redegit; Gerardus Merca- 
tor Rupelmundanus coelavit cum Caspare a Myrica, cui et 

[ 103 ] 



Terrestrial and Celestial Globes. 

sumptibus permaximis et laboribus nequaquam minoribus 
opus constat." "Gemma Frisius, physician and mathemati- 
cian, made (this globe) from the various observations of 
geographers, and fashioned it in this form. Gerhard Merca- 
tor of Rupelmunde with Caspar Miracus engraved (it) and 
expended on the work a large sum and no little labor." 

Frisius appears in this legend as the maker of the map, 
with Mercator and Myrica as the engravers. The date of 
construction is not given, but it clearly does not belong to 
the issue of 1530 referred to above. We read, for example, 
along the west coast of South America such names as 
"Tumbes," "tangara siue s. michaelis," and "Turicarami 
fluvius," and find that this west coast is sketched as far as 
latitude 5 degrees south. S. Michaelis was founded in 1532, 
and information concerning Fizarro's discoveries probably 
did not reach Europe until 1534. Europe has still many of 
the Ptolemaic features, as has also the continent of Asia. 
North America, which is rather better drawn than on any 
of the earlier maps, has the legend "Hispania Maior a 
Nuno Gusmafio devicta anno 1530." The west coast be- 
comes a very indefinite line at latitude 25 degrees north, 
at which point we read "Matonchel siue petra portus." It 
then sweeps northeastward in a flattened curve to "Bacca- 
learum Regio" with its "Promotoriu agricule seu cabo del 
labrador." From the land around the north pole, which is 
connected with Asia, the continent is separated by a narrow 
strait which is referred to as "Fretum arcticum siue trium 
fratrum, par quod lusitani in orientem et ad Indios et Mo- 
luccas nauigare conati sunt." "The Arctic strait or the strait 
of the three brothers through which the Portuguese at- 
tempted to sail to the East and to the Indies and the 
Moluccas." No general name is given to South America, but 
we find such regional names as "Nw Peru Provincia" and 
east of this "Bresilia." In the interior are such legends and 
local names as "Caxamalca fuit regis Atabaliape," "Cuzco," 
"Cincha," "Collao." The nomenclature shows decided Span- 

[ 104 ] 




Fig. 51. Portrait of Gemma Frisius. 



Second Quarter of the Sixteenth Century. 

ish influence, as we find "la laguna poblada," "R. de los 
esclavos," "R. d. los furmos," "Cabo corto." 

Ruge further notes the finding in the same Gymnasium 
of Zerbst of a celestial globe on which appears the follow- 
ing legend, "Faciebant Gemma Frisius medicus ac mathe- 
maticus, Gaspar a Myrica & Gerardus Mercator Rupelmun- 
danus anno a partu virgineo 1537." "Gemma Frisius 
physician and mathematician, Gaspar Myrica and Gerhard 
Mercator of Rupelmunde made this globe in the year 1537." 
A comparison of this legend with that of the terrestrial 
globe leads to the somewhat ingenious argument that the 
latter, though undated, is the older of the two. We know 
that Mercator was a pupil of Gemma Frisius,^* and that 
after leaving his university studies he found employment 
with the master in draughting maps and in the construction 
of mathematical instruments. In the dated legend of 1537 
Mercator and Myrica appear to have advanced in impor- 
tance, seeing that in the undated legend they are merely 
referred to as the engravers, while Frisius alone is men- 
tioned as the maker of the map. Since this discovery we are 
better informed as to the source of Mercator's information 
which he gives in his map of 1538; the evidence being con- 
clusive that in the main he followed the records of Frisius, 
adapting his map, however, to the double cordiform pro- 

• • 25 

jection. 

Harrisse describes a gilded copper globe, belonging to the 
collection of the Bibliotheque Nationale, having a diameter 
of 14 cm. and bearing the author and date legend reading 
"Robertus de Bailly 1530."^^ It is composed of two parts 
rather insecurely joined on the line of the equator, and is 
entirely without mountings. The engraving of the names, 
all in small capitals, has been remarkably well done. In out- 
lining the contour of the New World the draughtsman of 
the map has been influenced by the Verrazanian data, and 
although exhibiting minor differences in details there is a 
striking resemblance to the map of MaioUo of 1527,'^ to 

[ 105 ] 



Terrestrial and Celestial Globes. 

that of Verrazano of 1529,'^ and to that of Ulpius of 
1541."'' The region called by Maiollo "Francesca," by Ver- 
razano "Verrazana sive Gallia nova," by Ulpius "Verra- 
zana sive Nova Gallia," Robertus calls "Verrazana." In 
addition we find such names as 'Terra Laboratoris," 
"Bachaliao," "La Florida," "Tenustitan," "Farias," 
"MuNDUs Novus," "America," "St. Crusis," "Terra 
Magellanica." 

A second globe by Robertus de Bailly may be found in 
the library of Mr. J. P. Morgan of New York City (Fig. 
52). This example, signed and dated "Robertus de Bailly 
1530," and acquired a few years since, may be counted one 
of the finest metal globes of the period. None can be re- 
ferred to which is in a better state of preservation, if we can 
accept its mounting as the original. ^° In Rosenthal's cata- 
logue No. 100 it is referred to as a "Verrazzano-Globus," 
which is clearly an error, if there was thought of ascribing 
it to Giovanni Verrazano, the explorer, or to his brother 
Hieronimus, the chart maker. The outlines of its map of 
the New World are clearly of Verrazanian origin (Fig. 53), 
which therefore give to it a particular interest and value. 

Harrisse, in 1896, called attention to his discovery of 
two globes apparently of the early fourth decade of the 
sixteenth century. 

The first of these he refers to as a gilded copper sphere 
about 12 cm. in diameter, and fashioned to contain the 
mechanism by means of which it is made to revolve. It is 
neither signed nor dated. At the extremity of the rod passing 
through the sphere is an arrangement apparently for attach- 
ment to a second piece of mechanism, probably a planeta- 
rium. It is surrounded by a disc on which the hours are en- 
graved in Roman numerals. The geographical outlines are 
clearly of Verrazanian origin, representing the New World 
relatively long and narrow and having no Asiatic connec- 
tion. With few exceptions the nomenclature is in the Latin 
language, but we read for instance "El pasaie de S. Michel" 

[ 106 ] 



Second Quarter of the Sixteenth Century. 

and "Rio de las Amazonas. The name "America" appears 
only on the southern continent, where we also find such 
legends as "Francisi Pizarri hoc m(onticu'?) lo contra indos 
insignis victoria anno 1533," and off the coast of Peru 
"Ulterius incognitum." 

The second of these globes is likewise of copper, having 
a diameter of 21 cm. and carries the inscription "Christoff 
Schiepp sculpsit. Augusta," which is placed around a car- 
touch especially designed for a representation of the coat 
of arms of the Welser family. This family, it will be re- 
membered, figured conspicuously in connection with the 
German attempt at the colonization of Venezuela. The en- 
graved title of the map is practically the same as that to be 
found on the Paris gilt globe and reads "Nova et Integra 
universi orbis descriptio." It omits, however, the legend 
"Francesca" and "Verrazana sive nova Gallia," which fact 
may be due to its German origin. The nomenclature in 
Mexico and in South America is very detailed. The La 
Plata River, for example, as in the Gilt globe and in the 
Wooden globe, is called "Sinus Juliani" ; the Pacific is called 
"Oceanus Magnus Gelanicus." The austral land is referred 
to as "Terra australis nuper inventa, sed nondum plene 
examinata." 

While the first of these globes is unmounted, Scheipp's 
globe is furnished with gilded meridian and horizon circle, 
the whole being supported by a dolphin on a plinth of 
ebony. 

In the year 1533 Johann Schoner issued a small tract 
bearing the title 'Joannis Schoneri Carolostadii Opusculum 
Geographicum ex diversorum libris ac cartis summa cura & 
diligentia collectum, accomodatum ad recenter elaboratum 
ab eodem globum descriptiones terrenae.' 'A geographical 
tract of John Schoner of Carlstadt, extracted from various 
books and maps with much care and diligence and arranged 
for a recently elaborated globe, being a description of the 
earth. '^^ This little book was dedicated to John Frederick 

[ 107 ] 




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Fig* 53- Terrestrial Globe of Robertus de Bailly, 1530. 



Second Quarter of the Sixteenth Century. 

of Saxony "Ex urbe Norica Id. Novembris Anno MD- 
XXXIII." To it more than usual interest attaches. As the 
title states, it was issued as an explanatory text for a new 
globe,^" while in referring to the geography of the New 
World it clearly sets forth a reason for the changed notion 
concerning that geography, to which allusion has already 
been made,^^ a change from a belief in the independent posi- 
tion of the new lands to a belief that these lands were but 
a part of the continent of Asia. With reference to this point 
Schoner says, "Unde longissimo tractu occidentem versus ab 
Hispani terra est, quae Mexico et Temistitan vocatur supe- 
riori India, quam priores vocavere Quinsay id est civitatem 
coeli eorum lingui." "By a very long circuit westward, 
starting from Spain, there is a land called Mexico and 
Temistitan in Upper India, which in former times was 
called Quinsay, that is the city of Heaven, in the language 
of the country." He adds the statement, "Americus tamen 
Vesputius maritima loca Indiae superioris ex Hispaniis 
navigio ad occidentem palustrans, earn partem que supe- 
riore Indiae est, credidit esse insulam, quam a suo nomine 
vocari institituit. Alii vero nunc recentiores Hydrographi 
eam terram ulterius ex alia parte invenerunt esse continen- 
tem Asiae nam sic etiam ad Moluccas insulas superioris In- 
diae pervenerunt." "Americus Vespuccius, sailing along the 
coasts of Upper India, from Spain to the west, thought that 
the said part which is connected with Upper India, was an 
island which he had caused to be called after his own name. 
But now other hydrographers of more recent date have 
found that that land (South America) and others beyond 
constitute a continent, which is Asia, and so they reached as 
far as the Molucca Islands in Upper India." A later pas- 
sage in this tract is likewise interesting in this connection. 
After noting that America had been called the fourth part 
of the world he adds, "Modo vero per novissimas naviga- 
tiones, factas anno post Christum 1519 per Magellanum 
ducem navium invictissimi Caesaris divi Caroli etc. versus 

[ 109 ] 



Terrestrial and Celestial Globes. 

Moluccas insulas, quas alii Moluquas vocant, in supremo 
oriente positas, earn terram invenerunt esse continentem 
superioris Indiae, quae pars est Asiae." "But very lately, 
thanks to the very recent navigations accomplished in the 
year 1519 A. C. by Magellan, the commander of the expe- 
dition of the invincible, the divine Charles etc. towards the 
Molucca Islands, which some call Maluquas which are situ- 
ated in the extreme east, it has been ascertained that the 
said country (America) was the continent of Upper India, 
which is a part of Asia." 

It seems very probable that the globe referred to in this 
tract is one of those (Figs. 54, 54^), bearing neither date nor 
name of maker, to be found in the Grand Ducal Library of 
Weimar.^^ This conclusion, it may be stated, is based upon 
the fact of a striking agreement between the configurations 
on the globe and the descriptions to be found in Schoner's 
tract. The date 1534, which appears on the support, is 
doubtless of later origin than the globe itself, just as the 
date 1510 inscribed on the horizon circle of the Behaim 
globe is known not to indicate the year in which that work 
was completed. Wieser expresses the conviction that this 
globe is an improved reproduction of the one constructed 
in the year 1523, and he notes the interesting fact of its 
configurations resembling closely those of the Orontius 
Finaeus map of 1531, believing that it was the latter, 
however, who was the borrower. 

The Schiepp globe, referred to above, appears to have 
been constructed for a member of the Welser family, a rich 
patrician of South Germany. To Raymond Fugger, likewise 
a South German patrician, a member of a rich banker fam- 
ily of Augsburg, one Martin Furtembach dedicated a terres- 
trial globe which he had constructed in the year 1535.^^ 
This date and the wording of the dedication we get from a 
record of the year 1565. "Viro Magniiico Dn. Raymundo 
Fuggero, Invictissimorum Caroli V. Imperatoris, Ferdinandi 
primi Regis Romanorum a Consilijs, prudentissimo, studio- 

[ no ] 




Fig. 54. Schoner's Terrestrial Globe, 1533 (Probable). 



Second Quarter of the Sixteenth Century. 

sorum Mecaenasi, pauperum Christi asylo cantatissimo, 
Martinus Furtenbachius Abusiacus, Astrophilus typum hunc 
Cosmographicum universalem composuit atque dedicavit 
Anno a nato Christo M.D.XXXV." "To the Magnificent 
Dn. Raymond Fugger, most competent counselor of the 
most invincible Prince Charles V Emperor, and Ferdinand 
the First King of the Romans, a Maecenas of scholars, a 
most provident supporter of the poor in Christ, Martin 
Furtembach lover of astronomy, composed and dedicated 
this universal cosmographical figure, in the year of Christ 
1535." This globe, which we learn was taken from the 
Fugger castle of Kirchbay to the Vienna Imperial Library, 
in what year we do not know, seems to have disappeared 
some time after 1734, since, as Harrisse notes, no reference 
to it can be found after that date. It is described as a gilt 
copper ball of large size and an object of real art, being 
"ornamented on all sides with various figures of exquisite 
engraving, and is supported by a figure of Atlas with his 
right hand holding a compass, but with the rest of his body 
supported by his left hand, in a stooping posture." 

In addition to the globes previously referred to as be- 
longing to the Bibliotheque Nationale, there is one sup- 
posed to have been constructed about the year 1535. It is 
neither signed nor dated, but is usually referred to as the 
Paris Wooden globe. ^^ The diameter of the sphere is 20 
cm. It is without the usual mountings of meridian and hori- 
zon circles but is supported by an iron rod attached to a 
wooden base (Fig. ^^), which rod serves as an axis about 
which it may be revolved. A thick layer of paint covers 
the surface of the ball, on which the geographical names, 
legends, and configurations have been inscribed with a pen 
in a running hand. The poor calligraphy suggests that it is 
not the work of an expert cartographer, but of one who 
somewhat hastily and carelessly had undertaken to copy a 
globe map of the type represented in the work of Franciscus, 
of the maker of the Paris Gilt globe, or of Schoner in his 

[ 111 ] 



Terrestrial and Celestial Globes. 

globe of 1533. Meridians are represented at intervals of 
ten degrees commencing at a prime meridian which passes 
through the Cape Verde Islands, while the parallels are 
similarly marked, the graduation being indicated on the 
prime meridian. The globe maker has retained in his repre- 
sentations the old climatic idea, of which climates there are 
nine specifically designated. We find on this globe such 
inscriptions as "Baccalarum Regio," with its neighboring 
"Pelagus Baccalarum," "Terra Francesca," "Hispania 
Major," "Terra Florida," with the Gulf of Mexico bear- 
ing the name "M. Cathayum" as in the Nancy globe. The 
South American continent is conspicuously marked as 
"America Nova Orbis Pars," and contains in addition many 
regional names. The western ocean, beginning with that 
part which washes the coast of Mexico, thence southward, 
is called "Mare di Sur," "Mare Culuacanum," "Mare In- 
dicum Australe," "Mare Pacificum," and "Oceanus Magel- 
lanicus." The location of the colony which was planted by 
Pizarro in 1532, and which is called "S. Michaelis," is 
made prominent. 

Caspar Vopel,^^ bom at Medebach near Cologne, in the 
year 1511, was of that group of German cartographers and 
globe makers active in the second quarter of the sixteenth 
century in giving to the general public a knowledge of the 
great geographical discoveries of the day. Though much of 
the information through the maps which they constructed 
was strikingly inaccurate, their work is none the less inter- 
esting to the student of historical geography. It appears that 
Vopel entered the University of Cologne in the year 1526, 
that at a later date he became a professor of mathematics 
in a Cologne gymnasium, and that he continued to reside 
in this city until his death in the year 1561. During these 
years he became well known as a maker of maps and globes. 
Of his very large and important world map, issued in the 
year 1558, and which so admirably sets forth his geographi- 
cal notion of an Asiatic connection of the New World, an 

[ 112 ] 




Fig. 54a. Schoner's Celestial Globe, 1533 (Probable). 



Second Quarter of the Sixteenth Century. 

original copy may be found in the collection of Prince 
Liechtenstein, which is reproduced, after Giriva's redraught- 
ing, in Nordenskiold's 'Facsimile Atlas.'^® In the history of 
cartography his map of Europe and his Rhine map espe- 
cially merit a place of prominence. 

Nine of his globes are known, most of which are con- 
structed as armillary spheres, having within the numerous 
armillae or circles a small terrestrial globe, or at least that 
which passes as a representation of the same. His first work 
of which we have knowledge, now belonging to the city of 
Cologne, and to be found in the collection of its archives, 
is inscribed "Caspar Medebach opus hoc astronomicum fecit 
1532 Martii." It is a credit to the youthful artist and cos- 
mographer, suggesting, says Korth,^^ the possession of a 
technic resembling that of Diirer. This is a celestial globe 
28 cm. in diameter, having its star map drawn by hand, 
which is now somewhat discolored with age. 

Four years later Vopel constructed a second celestial 
globe, apparently a reproduction of the first but having 
its map printed on gores which he pasted on the surface of 
the sphere. It bears the inscription "Caspar Vopel, Mede- 
bach, banc Cosmogr. faciebat sphaeram Coloniae Ao 1536," 
has the same diameter as the one of 1532, and is now its 
companion in the city archives of Cologne.*" » 

The National Museum of Washington possesses a fine 
example of Vopel's work (Fig. 9), concerning which Mr. 
Maynard, curator of Mechanical Technology, writes that 
"the globe in this Museum is an armillary sphere of eleven 
metal rings, 4^^ inches in diameter, with a very small globe 
in the center. The rings are elaborately inscribed with 
astronomical signs and scales, with names in Latin. On one 
of the rings is the inscription, 'Caspar Vopel, Artium Pro- 
fessor, Hanc Sphaeram Faciebat Colonia, 1541.' "" 

In 1542 he constructed his first terrestrial globe, a copy 
of which is to be found in the Cologne archives.*" It has a 
diameter of 28 cm., its map gores, as in the case of the celes- 

[ 113 ] 



Terrestrial and Celestial Globes. 

tial globe of 1536, being printed from an engraved plate. 
Excepting the discoloration of age and a slight indenta- 
tion near the north pole, it is well preserved. The title 
legend reads "Nova et integra universi orbis descriptio." 
"A new and complete description of the entire globe." A 
second legend, placed in the middle Atlantic, reads "Caspar 
Vopel Medebach geographicam sphaeram hanc faciebat 
Coloniae A. 1542." "Caspar Vopel of Medebach made this 
globe in 1542 at Cologne." His terrestrial map assures us 
of his acceptance of the idea that the American continent 
could be but an extension of the continent of Asia; that is, 
like his predecessor Schoner and others of the second quar- 
ter of the sixteenth century, referred to above, he had con- 
cluded after Magellan had found a termination of the newly 
found transatlantic region at the south, and no passage- 
way from the Atlantic to the Pacific north of the equator 
had been found though search had frequently been made 
for the same, this country could therefore no longer be con- 
sidered as an independent continent. The river "Cham," 
which on his map he made to empty into the Gulf of Mex- 
ico, he gives as the dividing line between "Hispania Nova" 
and "Cathay." There is striking evidence that Vopel was 
acquainted with Orontius Finaeus' map of 1531 or its 
source, as, for example, he writes across the great austral 
continent, "Terra Australis recenter inventa, sed nondum 
plene cognita," adding the words "Anno 1499," which also 
appear on the Paris Wooden globe of 1535. 

In the Old Nordiske Museum of Copenhagen is an armil- 
lary sphere of Vopel, composed of eleven brass rings repre- 
senting the equator, the ecliptic, the tropics, the polar circles, 
etc., within which is a small terrestrial globe, on the sur- 
face of which is a manuscript world map. Quad refers to 
this globe in the following words: "Item ein Astrolabium 
novum varium ac plenum das auff alle Landschafften 
(kann) dirigiert werden beide den Mathematicis unnd 
Medicis sehr nutz, in funffzehen Stock und auff acht bogen 

[ 114 ] 




Fig. ^^. Paris Wooden Globe, 1535. 



Second Quarter of the Sixteenth Century. 

gedruckt, darunder auch ein kleine artige Mappa Mundi ins 
runde gelegt ist."*^ 

On the circle representing the Tropic of Cancer is en- 
graved the legend "Caspar Vopell Medebach hanc sphaeram 
faciebat Coloniae 1543." "Caspar Vopel of Medebach made 
this globe in Cologne in the year 1543." On the bottom of 
the box in which the globe is kept is a modern label reading 
"Nocolaus Copernicus 1543 . . . ty . . . Brah." Coper- 
nicus died in the year designated, and Tycho Brahe was 
bom in the year 1546. It appears, therefore, that this globe 
once belonged to the great Danish astronomer. 

In the Library of Congress, acquired from L. Friedrich- 
sen of Hamburg, is a fine example of the work of Vopel.** 
This armillary sphere of eleven rings, encircling a terres- 
trial globe 7.2 cm. in diameter, is mounted on a copper 
base. On the circle representing the Tropic of Cancer is the 
inscription "Caspar Vopel artiv profes. hanc sphaeram 
faciebat Coloniae 1543." "Caspar Vopel professor of arts 
made this globe in Cologne in the year 1543," while on the 
remaining circles are engraved numerous cosmographical 
signs and names. The terrestrial globe is covered with a 
manuscript map in colors, and bears the title legend "Nova 
ac generalis orbis descriptio," and the author legend "Caspar 
Vopel mathe. faciebat." Most of the regional names on the 
map are in red, and a red dot is employed to indicate the 
location of certain important cities, the names in general 
being omitted. The globe is remarkably well preserved (Fig. 

56). 

In the collection of Jodoco del Badia, state archivist of 
Florence, is a Vopel armillary sphere of the year 1544.*^ 
The engraved inscription on the Tropic of Cancer reads 
"Caspar Vopel Me. Matem. hanc sphaeram faciebat colo- 
niae 1544." Within the eleven armillae is a very small 
wooden sphere intended to represent a terrestrial globe of 
wood, about 3 cm. in diameter, on which the equator and 

[ 115 ] 



Terrestrial and Celestial Globes. 

the tropics are represented, but no geographical details of 
any value appear because of the small size of the ball. 

A Vopel armillary sphere, apparently like the preceding, 
bearing the same date and legends, is reported as belonging 
to the city museum of Salzburg/" 

A somewhat detailed description, by J. H, Graf, of a 
Vopel armillary sphere in the possession of the Herr Forstin- 
spector Frey of Bern, appeared in the year 1894, 
in the Jahresbericht of the Geographical Society of 
Munich.*^ It is composed of twelve instead of eleven armil- 
lae, and at the common center is a small terrestrial ball. 
The inscriptions appearing on each of the several rings are 
given by Graf, and the work of Vopel is compared with 
that of other map makers of the time. On circle 3, for exam- 
ple, counting from the outermost, is a citation from Ovid 
(Amores I. 6. 59), "Night, love, and wine are not coun- 
selors of moderation." On circle 5, which represents the 
Tropic of Cancer, is the author and date legend, reading 
"Caspar Vopellius Mathe. Profes. banc sphaeram faciebat 
Coloniae 1545." On circle 7 we read "Fate rules the world, 
all stands secure according to unchangeable law, and the 
long lapse of time is marked by certain course." On one of 
the circles movable about the pole of the ecliptic is the 
inscription "The sun, called Helios, moves through the en- 
tire circle of the zodiac in 365 days and about 6 hours." 
Graf notes the striking similarity of this sphere to that be- 
longing to the Old Nordiske Museum of Copenhagen, and 
adds to his paper a reproduction of the terrestrial globe map 
in plane projection.*® The feature common to all of the 
Vopel maps, viz., the connection of the New and the Old 
Worlds, is particularly emphasized. The name "America" 
appears only on South America, and rightly so, if at all, in 
keeping with his geographical ideas. 

Giinther reports that there may be found in the Hof- und 
Staatsbibliothek of Munich (Sig. Math. A 41, fol.), a vol- 
ume of drawings and engravings once belonging to the 

[ 116 ] 




Fig. 56. Vopel Globe, 1543. 



Second Quarter of the Sixteenth Century. 

Niirnberg mathematician, George Hartmann.^'' In this col- 
lection there are two sets of celestial globe gores, the one 
containing nine, originally ten parts, dated February, 1535, 
the other containing ten undated parts. It is thought by 
Giinther that we have here, in all probability, the earliest 
example of engraved celestial globe gores, a second example 
in date being that by Vopel of 1536, and referred to above. 

In the year 1859 Mr. Buckingham Smith obtained in the 
city of Madrid an engraved copper globe of striking scien- 
tific value and interest. On the death of Mr. Smith this 
globe, now known as the Ulpius globe (Fig. 57), was pur- 
chased by Mr. John David Wolf and later was presented to 
the Library of the New York Historical Society, where it 
may now be found among that society's rich collection of 
historical treasures. ^° It is of large size, having a diameter 
of 39 cm., rests upon an oak base, and measuring from the 
bottom of the base to the top of the iron cross which tips 
the north polar axis, its entire height is 1 1 1 cm. The hollow 
hemispheres of which the ball is composed are made to join 
at the line of the equator, the parts being held together by 
iron pins. In addition to its copper equatorial circle, which 
is neatly graduated and engraved with signs of the zodiac, 
it has a meridian and an hour circle of brass. On the surface 
of the globe itself the principal parallels are drawn, and 
meridians at intervals of thirty degrees, the line of the eclip- 
tic being very prominent, and the boundary line proposed 
by Pope Alexander VI, marking a terminus for the claims 
of Spain and Portugal to newly discovered regions, is strik- 
ingly conspicuous, with its legend reaching from pole to 
pole, "Terminus Hispanis et Lusitanis ab Alexandro VI 
P. M. assignatus."" "Limit to Spain and Portugal set by 
Pope Alexander VI." 

That a globe of such large dimensions, and of date so 
early, should come down to our day scarcely injured in the 
slightest degree, is a source of much delight to students of 
early cartography and of early discovery and exploration. 

[ 117 ] 



Terrestrial and Celestial Globes. 

In a neat cartouch we read the following inscription: 
"Regiones orbis terrae quae aut aveterib traditae aut 
nostra patruq memoria compertae sint. Euphrosynus Ul- 
pius describebat anno salutis M.D.XLII." "Regions of the 
terrestrial globe which are handed down by the ancients or 
have been discovered in our memory or that of our fathers. 
Delineated by Euphrosynus Ulpius in the year of salvation 
1542." The work is dedicated to "Marcello Cervino S. R. E. 
Presbitero Cardinali D. D. Rome," "Marcellus Cervino, 
Cardinal Presbyter and Doctor of Divinity of the Holy 
Roman Church, Rome,"^^ the dedication being inscribed in 
a cartouch ornamented with wheat or barley heads, a device 
to be found in the coat of arms of the Cervino family, and 
with the deer which may be taken as an allusion to the 
name. 

Not the least interesting feature of its geographical record 
in the New World is that wherein testimony is given to the 
voyage of Verrazano in the year 1524. The outline of the 
North American continent is strikingly like that given in 
the Verrazano map of 1529 (Fig. 58), showing an isthmus 
in the vicinity of Chesapeake Bay, beyond which stretches a 
great unnamed sea to the west, called in some of the early 
maps the Sea of Verrazano. Ulpius attests the discovery in 
the following legend, "Verrazana sive Nova Gallia a Ver- 
razano Florentino comperta anno Sal. M.D." "Verrazana 
or New France discovered by Verrazano a Florentine in 
the year of salvation 1500." The date in this legend is taken 
to be an incomplete rather than an erroneous record, the 
correct date being obtainable from the following legend 
appearing on the map of Hieronimus Verrazano, brother of 
the explorer, "Verrazana sive nova gallia quale discopri 5 
anni fa giovanni di verrazano fiorentino per ordine et com- 
mandamento del Christianissimo re di francia." "Verrazana 
or New France discovered five years since by Giovanni Ver- 
razano a Florentine by order and command of the Most 
Christian King of France. "^^ Ulpius must have made use of 

[ 118 ] 




Fig. 57. Terrestrial Globe of Euphrosynus Ulpius, 1541. 



Second Quarter of the Sixteenth Century. 

this Verrazano map in drawing the outline of North Amer- 
ica, though he did not copy slavishly, as we find that he 
greatly improved on that map in the trend he has given the 
Atlantic coast line of North America, and in the numerous 
details he has inscribed. In very many of the Atlantic coast 
names, however, there is a practical agreement between 
those on the globe and those on the map. 




Fig. 58. Western Hemisphere of Ulpius Globe, 1541. 

To the continent of South America is given both the name 
"America" and "Mundus Novus," while numerous provin- 
cial names appear, as "Peru," "Bresilia," "Terra de giganti." 
The land areas of both the New and the Old World are 
liberally ornamented with representations of the local ani- 
mal life, the traditional belief in the existence of cannibals 
in Mundus Novus being especially prominent. The oceans 
are made to abound in sea monsters, and vessels sail hither 

[ 119 ] 



Terrestrial and Celestial Globes. 

and thither over the courses then followed by navigators. 
Though South America has the entire coast line represented, 
that section stretching southward from Peru is marked as 
"terra incognita." Separated from the mainland by the 
Strait of Magellan, marked by the legend, "initium freti 
magellanici," is an extensive land area, that part lying to 
the southwest of the strait being called "Regio Patalis," 
that to the southeast as "Terra Australis adhuc incomperta," 
while from this particular region there stretches away to the 
east, as far as the meridian passing through the southern 
point of Africa, a peninsula across which is the legend "Lusi- 
tani ultra promotorium bone spei i Calicutium tendentes 
hanc terra viderut, veru non accesserunt, quamobrem neq 
nos certi quidq3 afferre potuimus," "The Portuguese sailing 
beyond the Cape of Good Hope to Calicut, saw this land 
but did not reach it, wherefore neither have we been able 
to assert anything with certainty concerning it." 

In the main Ptolemy served as a source of information 
for the regions of the East, although much of the informa- 
tion which the earlier years of the century had contributed 
to a knowledge of that far-away country is recorded. 

The large size of the globe gave opportunity for the 
inscription of numerous geographical details, and of this 
opportunity the engraver fully availed himself. It may well 
be referred to as one of the most interesting of the early 
globes, and its map records as possessing great scientific 
value. 

Tiraboschi alludes to a globe possessed by Cardinal Pietro 
Bembo (1470-1547), citing a letter written by Giacomo 
Faletti at Venice, June 3, 1561, to Alfonso II D'Este of Fer- 
rara, in which mention is made of the same. "I have bought," 
says Faletti, "the globe of Cardinal Bembo for fifteen scudi 
which is the price of the metal composing it, and I have given 
it out to be decorated hoping to make of it the most beau- 
tiful globe which is possessed by any Prince in the world. It 
will cost altogether 25 scudi."''* This globe must have been 

[ 120 1 



Second Quarter of the Sixteenth Century. 

made before the year 1547, in which year occurred the death 
of the cardinal, Fiorini expresses the opinion that it probably 
was owned by him while making his residence at Padua, 
when, free from care, he was giving himself to study and to 
the collection of scientific and artistic objects.^^ 

One of Spain's distinguished chart makers of the middle 
of the sixteenth century was Alonso de Santa Cruz ( 1 500- 
1572).^® Although but few of his cartographical productions 
are known, there is to be found in the survivals abundant 
evidence of his marked ability. We learn concerning him 
that by royal order of July 7, 1 536, he was created cosmog- 
rapher of the Casa de Contratacion at a salary of 30,000 
maravedis, that in this capacity it was his duty to examine 
and pass upon sailing charts, that shortly after the above- 
named date he became Cosmografo Major, and that some 
time before his death, which occurred in the year 1572, 
Philip II appointed him to the office of Royal Historian." 
His best-known work is his 'Yslario general del mondo,' 
of which three signed manuscript copies are known, no one 
of which, however, appears to be complete. Two of these 
copies are to be found in the Royal Library of Vienna f^ the 
third, now belonging to the City Library of Besan^on, was 
at one time in the possession of Cardinal Granvella.^^ The 
National Library of Madrid possesses a fine manuscript 
atlas, which has been generally attributed to Garcia Ces- 
pedes, since his name appears on the frontispiece, but which 
now is thought by those who have most carefully examined 
it to be the work of Santa Cruz. There are evidences that it 
has been somewhat altered in parts, which alterations may 
have been the work of Cespedes.*'° 

In addition to his 'Yslario' we still have his remarkable 
map of the city of Mexico, belonging to the University 
Library of Upsala,"^ and one copy of his world map in 
gores (Fig. 59), preserved in the Royal Library of Stock- 
holm. It is this last-named map which especially interests 
us here.'^^ 

[ 121 ] 



Terrestrial and Celestial Globes. 

Though the form of the map suggests that it had been 
the author's intention to paste it on the surface of a pre- 
pared sphere, there appears to be good reason for thinking 
that this particular copy was not intended to serve him in 
a terrestrial globe construction. It is surrounded with an 
ornamental border finely executed in gold and white, and 
stretching across the top is a waving scroll in which has 
been written the inscription "Nova verior et Integra totius 
orbis descriptio nunc primum in lucem edita per Alfonsum 
de Sancta Cruz Caesaris Charoli V. archicosmographum. 
A. D. M.D.XLII." "A very new and complete description of 
the whole world now first prepared by Alfonso de Santa 
Cruz Cosmographer Major of the Emperor Charles V. 
1542." The original map is drawn on three connected sheets 
of parchment, as Dahlgren states in his excellent mono- 
graph, the total dimensions of which are 79 by 144 cm. In 
the lower corner on the left is the dedication: "Potentiss. 
Caes. Carlo V. Usi sumus et hie ad terrae, marisque simul, 
demionstractionem, sectione alia, Augustiss. Caesar, per equi- 
notialem lineam Polum quemque, dividui ipsius globi, sin- 
gula medietas obtinens, depressoque utroque in planum 
Polo, equinotialem ipsam secantes, rationem prospectivam 
servavimus, quemadmodum et in alia, veluti solutis Polls, 
itidem in planum discisis meridianis propalavimus, neque 
pretermissis hie longitudinum latitudinumque graduum 
parallelorum climatumque dimensionibus. Vale." "O power- 
ful Caesar I we have, here also in this map of land and sea, 
made use of a new division of the globe; namely, at the 
equator, so that each half of the globe thus divided has one 
of the poles as its center. By depressing the pole to the plane 
of the equator and by making incisions from the equator 
to the pole, we have made a projection similar to that pre- 
sented to the public on the other map with detached poles 
and with the meridians separated on the same plane, with- 
out disregarding the correct dimensions of the longitude, 
latitudes, degrees, parallels, and climates. Farewell." 

[ 122 ] 




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Second Quarter of the Sixteenth Century. 

The map represents the world in two hemispheres, a 
northern and a southern, each drawn on thirty-six half gores 
or sectors. The following appears to have been the method 
of construction. With the poles as centers, and with a radius 
equal to one fourth of the length of a meridian circle of 
the globe he drew his large circle or circles representing the 
equator and fonning the bases of each of the half gores. 
Each of the large or equatorial circles he divided into thirty- 
six equal arcs, and from the points establishing such divi- 
sions he drew a meridian line extending in each hemisphere 
to the pole or center of his circle. These meridian lines were 
graduated and lines or arcs representing parallels of latitude 
were drawn intersecting them at intervals of ten degrees, 
having the pole as the common center in each hemisphere. 
Marking off on each of these parallels or arcs both to right 
and left a distance representing five degrees of the earth's 
longitude, he thus established the points through which to 
draw his meridians which marked the boundaries of each 
sector, leaving between the sectors equal spaces to be cut 
away should the sectors be used for pasting on the surface 
of a sphere. Every fifth meridian and every tenth parallel 
is drawn in black; the equator, the tropics, the polar circles, 
and the prime meridian are gilded. The prime meridian runs 
somewhat to the west of the Island of Fayal. At longitude 
20 degrees west is the papal line of demarcation which is 
called "Meridianus particionis," crossing South America 
south of the mouth of the Amazon. On the one side of this 
line in the southern hemisphere appears the flag of Spain, 
on the other that of Portugal, thus designating specifically 
the "Hemisperium Regis Castelle," and the "Hemisperium 
Regis Portugalie." California is referred to as "y^ q descubrio 
el marq's del valle," "island discovered by the Marquis del 
Valle," and the coast north of this point is called "tefa q 
cnbioC?) a descubrio de ant*^ d' medoca," "land to discover 
which Don Antonio de Mendoza sent out an expedition." 
In drawing the outlines of his continents he seems to have 

[ 123 ] 



Terrestrial and Celestial Globes. 

made use of the best available sources. The New World 
follows the Sevillan type, as represented in the Ribeiro 
maps, particularly the eastern or Atlantic coast regions, 
including, though in somewhat abbreviated form, the ref- 
erences to Gomez, Ayllon, and Narvaez. There is no distinct 
coast line north of California, which line follows the merid- 
ian of 105 degrees as far north as the Arctic circle, hence 
there is no positive representation of an Asiatic connection, 
but rather the indication of a doubt, as was indicated on 
maps of the type. 

If Santa Cruz intended his peculiar gores to serve in the 
construction of a terrestrial globe, we cannot find that he 
impressed his method on the globe makers of the period. We 
seem to have but one striking imitation of his work, viz., in 
the gore map of Florianas, to which reference is made 
below.'^ 

To that striking feature of many of the globe maps of 
the second quarter of the sixteenth century, in which an 
Asiatic connection of the New World is represented, atten- 
tion has been called in the preceding pages; there likewise 
has been noted the fact that not a few of the map makers 
of the period expressed a certain degree of doubt as to 
whether the prevailing idea of the first quarter of the cen- 
tury (that the lands discovered in the west constituted a 
veritable New World) should be given over, preferring to 
omit altogether the west and northwest coast line of North 
America, or to make very indefinite allusion to the geography 
of the region. 

We now come to the consideration of a map and globe 
maker who carries us back to the geographical notion of 
the earlier years of the century, namely, to the idea that the 
New World was nothing less than an independent continent. 
The activities of Gerhard Mercator (1512-1594) (Fig. 60) 
were epoch making, and a reference to him more detailed 
than has been accorded his predecessors is fitting."* He was a 
native of Rupelmunde, a small town situated in the Pays 

[ 124 ] 




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Second Quarter of the Sixteenth Century. 

de Waes in East Flanders, not far from the city of Ant- 
werp. His parents died while he was still a mere lad, but in 
a great-uncle he found a faithful guardian and a generous 
benefactor, who took care that his education should be the 
best that was afforded by the schools of the Netherlands. 
In 1527, at the age of fifteen, he entered the College of 
Bois-le-Duc in Brabant, where he studied for three and one 
half years, and in 1530 he was matriculated as a student 
in the University of Louvain, famous throughout Europe 
at that early date as a center of learning.^^ During his uni- 
versity career he appears to have given much thought to 
the problems of science, including the "origin, nature, and 
destiny" of the physical universe. While these studies did 
not bear directly upon that branch of science in which he 
was to win for himself such marked distinction in later 
years, they indicate the early existence of a desire for knowl- 
edge scientific rather than for knowledge theological, not- 
withstanding the fact that his guardian and patron was an 
ecclesiastic. 

In Gemma Frisius, an eminent professor of mathematics 
in the University of Louvain, and at one time a pupil of 
Apianus, he appears, as before noted, to have found a sym- 
pathetic friend and counselor.®*' It probably was Frisius 
who suggested a career for the young scientist, since we find 
him, shortly after graduation, turning his attention to the 
manufacture of mathematical instruments, to the drawing, 
engraving, and coloring of maps and charts, wherein he 
found a vocation for the remainder of his life. In 1537 his 
first publication, a map of Palestine, appeared, to which he 
gave the title "Amplissima Terrae Sanctae descriptio."" 
Immediately thereafter, at the instance of a certain Flemish 
merchant, he undertook the preparation of a map of Flan- 
ders, making for the same extensive original surveys. This 
map was issued in the year 1540.*^* Mercator's first published 
map of the world bears the date 1538. This map was 
drawn in the double cordiform projection which seems first 

[ 125 ] 



Terrestrial and Celestial Globes. 

to have been employed by Orontius Finaeus in his world 
map of 1531."'* In this map Mercator departed from the 
geographical notions generally entertained at this particular 
period which made America an extension of Asia. He repre- 
sented the continent of Asia separated from the continent 
of America by a narrow sea, an idea which increased in 
favor with geographers and cartographers long before actual 
discovery proved this to be a fact. This map is one to which 
great importance attaches, but it is not the first world map 
on which there was an attempt to fasten the name America 
upon both the northern and the southern continents of the 
New World, although it frequently has been referred to as 
such ; this honor, so far as we at present know, belongs to a 
globe map referred to and briefly described above, '° His 
large map of Europe, the draughting of which appears to 
have claimed much of his time for a number of years, was 
published in the year 1554, and contributed greatly to his 
fame as a cartographer,^^ In 1564 appeared his large map 
of England,'" and in the same year his map of Lorraine 
based upon his own original surveys." In the year 1569 a 
master work was issued, this being his nautical chart, "ad 
usum navigantium," as he said of it, based upon a new pro- 
jection which he had invented,'^ It is the original chart 
setting forth the Mercator projection which is now so ex- 
tensively employed in map making. In the year 1578 he 
issued his revised edition of the so-called Ptolemy maps, and 
eight years later these same maps again, revised with the 
complete text of Ptolemy's work on geography. Mercator 
expressly stated it to be his purpose, in this last work, not 
to revise the text in order to make it conform to the most 
recent discoveries and geographical ideas, but the rather 
to have a text conforming, as nearly as possible, to Ptolemy's 
original work. This edition still ranks as one of the best 
which has ever been issued. His great work, usually referred 
to as his 'Atlas of Modern Geography,' the first part of 
which appeared in 1585, and a second part in 1590, was 

[ 126 ] 



Second Quarter of the Sixteenth Century. 

not completed during his hfetime, though but four months 
after his death, in the year 1594, Rumold Mercator pub- 
Hshed his father's collection of maps, adding a third part 
to those which previously had been issued. It was this publi- 
cation which bore the title 'Atlas sive cosmographicae medi- 
tationes de fabrica mundi et fabricati figura.' Apparently 
for the first time the term "atlas" had here been employed 
for a collection of maps, a term which we know had its 
origin with Gerhard Mercator himself. A reference to his 
general cartographical work more detailed than the above 
cannot here find place. It is his globes which call for special 
consideration. 

There is reason for thinking it was Nicolas Perrenot, father 
of Cardinal Granvella, who suggested to Mercator the con- 
struction of a globe; it at least was to this great Prime Min- 
ister of the Emperor Charles V that he dedicated his first 
work of this character, a terrestrial globe dated 1541.^'' That 
Mercator had constructed such a globe had long been known 
through a reference in Ghymmius' biography, yet it had been 
thought, until 1868, that none of the copies of this work 
had come down to us. In that year there was offered for 
sale, in the city of Ghent, the library of M. Benoni-Verelst 
and among its treasures was a copy of Mercator' s engraved 
globe gores of the year 1541, which were acquired by the 
Royal Library of Brussels, where they may still be found. 
Soon thereafter other copies of these gores, mounted and 
unmounted, came to light in Paris, in Vienna, in Weimar, 
in Niirnberg, and later yet other copies in Italy, until at 
present no less than twelve copies are known. 

These gores were constructed to cover a sphere 41 cm. in 
diameter, and the map represents the entire world, with its 
seas, its continents, and its islands. The names of the various 
regions of the earth, of the several empires, and of the 
oceans are inscribed in Roman capital letters; the names of 
the kingdoms, of the provinces, of the rivers, are inscribed 
in cursive Italic letters, while for the names of the several 

[ 127 ] 



Terrestrial and Celestial Globes. 

peoples he employed a different form of letter. The gores, 
twelve in number, were engraved and printed in groups of 
threes (Fig. 6l), each gore having an equatorial diameter 
of thirty degrees. Mercator worked out mathematically the 
problem dealing with the proper relation of the length of 
each of the gores to its width, or of its longer diameter to its 
shorter, in his endeavor to devise a map as nearly perfect as 
possible in shape for covering a ball, knowing full well the 
difficulty of fitting a fiat surface to one that is curved. Each 
of the gores he truncated twenty degrees from the poles, and 
for the polar areas he prepared a circular section drawn 
according to the rule applicable to an equidistant polar 
projection. It appears, as before noted, that he was the first 
to apply this method in globe construction. 

The ecliptic, the tropics, and the polar circles are repre- 
sented at their proper intervals, with other parallels at inter- 
vals of ten degrees, and meridians at intervals of fifteen 
degrees. As in his double cordiform map of 1538, his prime 
meridian passes through the island of "Forte Ventura," one 
of the Fortunate Islands of the ancients, but which had 
long been known as the Canary Islands. To his globe map 
he added a feature of special value to seamen. From the 
numerous compass or wind roses, distributed with some 
regularity over its surface, he drew loxodromic lines, or 
curved lines cutting the meridians at equal angles.^*' This 
feature could not have failed to win the approval of navi- 
gators, since they well knew that the previous attempts to 
represent these rhumbs as straight lines on maps drawn on 
a cylindrical projection, led to numerous errors in naviga- 
tion. A second somewhat curious and interesting feature of 
his globe, a feature which I do not recall to have noticed in 
any other, is the representation in various localities on land 
and on sea of certain stars, his idea being that he could thus 
assist the traveler to orient himself at night. In his list of 
stars on his globe map, we find, for example, "Sinister 
humerus Bootes" near latitude 40 degrees north, longitude 

[ 128 ] 






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Second Quarter of the Sixteenth Century. 

210 degrees; "Corona septentrionalis" near latitude 29 de- 
grees north, longitude 227 degrees; "Cauda Cygni" near 
latitude 44 degrees north, longitude 305 degrees ; "Humerus 
Pegasus" near latitude 12 degrees north, longitude 340 de- 
grees; "Crus Pegasi" near latitude 26 degrees north, longi- 
tude 339 degrees; six of the important stars in "Ursa 
Major," including "Stella Polaris," and in the present 
California, somewhat strangely prophetic. "Caput Dra- 



conis." 



On the ninth gore, counting from the prime meridian 
eastward, is a legend giving the author's name, the date of 
issue, and a reference to the publication privilege, reading 
"Edebat Gerardus Mercator Rupelmundanus cum privilegio 
Ces Maiestatis ad an sex Lovanii an 1541." "Published by 
Gerard Mercator of Rupelmunde under the patent of His 
Imperial Majesty for six years at Louvain in the year 
1941." In a corresponding position on the seventh gore is 
the dedication "Illustris: Dn5 Nicolao Perrenoto Domino a 
Granvella Sac. Caesaree Ma^^ a consiliis primo dedecatu." 
"Dedicated to the very distinguished Seigneur Nicholas Per- 
renot. Seigneur de Granvella; first counselor of His Im- 
perial Majesty," over which is the coat of arms of the Prime 
Minister. On gore six we read "Ubi & quibus argumentis 
Lector ab aliorum descriverimus editione libellus noster 
indicabit." "Reader, where and in what subjects we have 
copied from the publications of other men will be pointed 
out in our booklet," in which there appears to be a reference 
to an intended publication wherein his globe v/as to be 
described and its uses indicated. No such work by Mercator 
is known to exist, although we find that in the year 1 552 he 
issued a small pamphlet bearing the title 'Declaratio insig- 
niorum utilitatum quae sunt in globo terrestri, caelesti et 
anulo astronomico. Ad invictissimum Romanum Imperatorus 
Carolum Quintum.' 'A presentation of the particular advan- 
tages of the terrestrial, celestial, and armillan,- spheres. 

[ 129 ] 



Terrestrial and Celestial Globes. 

Dedicated to the invincible Roman Emperor Charles 
Fifth.'" 

He tells us in one of his legends how to find the distance 
between two places represented on the globe, observing, 
"Si quorum voles locoru distantia cognoscere . , . tras- 
ferto, hie tibi, q libet particula Ttercepta miliaria referet, 
Hisp: 18, Gal: 20, Germ: 15, Milia pass; 60, Stadia 500," 
from which it appears that he gives as the value of an 
equatorial degree 60 Italian miles or 500 stadia, equiva- 
lent to 18 Spanish miles, to 20 French miles, and to 15 
Gemian miles. Finding numerous errors in Ptolemy's geog- 
raphy of the Old World, he tells us that he undertook to 
correct these errors from the accounts of Marco Polo, whom 
he calls "M. Paulo Veneto," and from the accounts of Var- 
tema, whom he calls "Ludovico, Rom Patricii." Between 
parallels 50 degrees and 60 degrees south latitude and 
meridians 60 degrees and 70 degrees east longitude is the 
inscription "Psitacorum regio a Lusitanis anno 1500 ad 
millia passum bis mille praetervectis, sic appellata quod 
psitacos elat inaudite magnitudinis, ut qui ternos cubitos 
aequent longitudine." "Region of parrots discovered by the 
Portuguese in 1500 who sailed along 2000 miles; so called 
because it has parrots of unheard-of size, measuring three 
cubits in length." America, he notes, is called New India, 
"America a multis hodie Nona India dicta." In the Antarctic 
region an inscription tells of the notion entertained b)^ many 
geographers of his day and by some in an earlier day, that 
in addition to the four known parts of the world, Europe, 
Asia, Africa, and America, there is here a fifth part of large 
size stretching for a number of degrees from the pole, which 
region is called "terra Australe." Mercator undertook, in 
Chapter X of his 'Atlas,' to demonstrate that a large Ant- 
arctic continent must of necessity exist as a balance to the 
weight of the other four continents or parts of the world 
lying in the northern hemisphere.^* 

In 1551 he issued his copper engraved gores for a celes- 

[ 130 ] 



Second Quarter of the Sixteenth Century. 

tial globe, dedicating tlie same to Prince George of Austria, 
natural son of the Emperor Maximilian, who was Bishop 
of Brixen, Archbishop of Valencia, and Bishop of Liege in 
the year 1544. A set of these gores was likewise acquired 
by the Royal Library of Brussels at the same time it acquired 
the terrestrial globe gores referred to above/'^ The dedica- 
tion reads "Ampliss: Preculi Principiq3 111™° Georgio ab 
Austria Dei dispositione Episcopo Leodiensi, Duci Bul- 
lonensi, Marchioni Francimotensi, Comiti Lossensi Sc"^ mecae 
nati optime merito dd. Gerardus Mercator Rupelmundanus." 
"To the Magnificent Protector and Prince, the very dis- 
tinguished George of Austria, by the Grace of God, Bishop 
of Liege, Duke of Bouillon, Marquis of Francimontensi, 
Count of Lossensi, the verv^ splendid patron of arts and 
science, dedicated by Gerard Mercator of Rupelmunde." 
Near the above inscription we find the date and place of 
issue given as follows, "Lovanii anno Domini 1551 mense 
Aprili," and a reference to his privilege "Inhibitum est ne 
quis hoc opus imitetur, aut alibi factum vendat, intra fines 
Imperii, vel provinciarum inferiorum Caes: Mtis an: te 
decennium, sub poenis & mulctis in diplomatibus cotentis. 
Oberburger & Soete subscrib." "All persons are forbidden 
to reproduce this work or to sell it when made elsewhere 
within the Empire or the Low Countries of His Imperial 
Majesty until after ten years, under the penalties and fines 
prescribed in the patent. Signed by Oberburger and Soete." 
It clearly was the intention that this should serve as the com- 
panion of his terrestrial globe of 1541, described above, since 
the gores are of the same size, each of the twelve being 
truncated in the same manner, and the circular section being 
prepared for the polar areas. Mercator's merits as an astron- 
omer by no means equaled his merits as a geographer. 
However, his celestial globe, by reason of the exactness of 
the composition, by reason of its simplicity, and by reason 
of the artistic skill exhibited in the workmanship, is a most 
worthy work of that great scientist. On this globe are repre- 

[ 131 ] 



Terrestrial and Celestial Globes. 

sented the forty-eight constellations of Ptolemy, to which 
have been added three which he calls Antinous, Lepus 
and Cincinnus, the first formed of six stars and located 
on the equator below the constellation Aquila, the second 
in the southern hemisphere under the feet of Orion, and 
the third in the northern hemisphere near the tail of Ursa 
Major.*" His constellations, as well as the principal stars 
in the same, have, in the majority of instances, Greek, Latin, 
and Arabic names. It does not appear that Mercator felt 
himself bound to a strictly scientific representation and 
interpretation of the celestial bodies, for he pays more or 
less homage to astrology, inscribing on the horizon circle 
of his globe the horoscope as used b)^ astrologists in calcu- 
lating nativities, perhaps recognizing, from a business stand- 
point, the advantage of an appeal to certain superstitions 
which he found still lingering among both the learned and 
the unlearned. 

By reason of their size and the great care with which 
they had been prepared, his globes must have found general 
favor, not only with those of rank and distinction, for whom 
copies de luxe were issued, but with geographers and scholars 
in general, who found it possible to obtain at a compara- 
tively small price the more modest copies. That they found 
favor in Germany is assured us by Mercator's correspond- 
ence with Camerarius of Niirnberg, in which mention is 
made of the sale of six pairs of his globes in that cit}^ and 
of others at the Frankfort book market.^^ Thomas Blunde- 
ville tells us in his 'Exercises' that Mercator's globes were 
in common use in England until 1592,*" and the number 
of his globes which have become known since 1868 in vari- 
ous parts of Europe assure us that copies of that master's 
work must have been easily obtainable by those interested. 
Ruscelli, in referring to printed spheres, notes that they 
usually were made small, and that those of large size are not 
exact, but he adds that he had seen some that were three 
and one half palms in diameter, such as that which years 

[ 132 ] 



Second Quarter of the Sixteenth Century. 

ago Aurelio Porcelaga sent to him to examine, printed in 
Germany, and given to him by Monseigneur Granvella, to 
whom or to whose father, not recalling which, it had been 
dedicated, but which he remembered was ver}' beautiful and 
very exact, being evidently engraved by one ver}- expert, 
judged by the beauty of the design and the artistic quality of 
the letters.®^ Fiorini is of the opinion that these globes were 
Mercator's, and that thev were carried into Itah- in the late 
years of the sixteenth centun,' when a friendly relationship 
existed between certain Italian princes and the Spanish 
authorities then ruling in Flanders.*^ 

Attention has been called above to the acquisition by the 
Royal Library of Brussels of a copy each of the terrestrial 
and the celestial globe gores, and that the discovery of the 
same having created an especial interest in his work, other 
examples were soon brought to light in Italy, in Spain, in 
France, in Germany, and in Austria. A pair may be found 
in the Museum Astronomique of Paris, a pair in the Royal 
Library of Vienna, a pair in the Germanisches National 
Museum in Niirnberg, a pair in the archives of the town of 
St. Nicholas de Waes, a copy of the terrestrial globe in 
the Grand Ducal Librarv* of Weimar, a copy of the celes- 
tial in the Convent of Adamont, Istria, and a copy of the 
terrestrial in the Convent of Stams, Tyrol. Dr. Buonanno, 
director of the Biblioteca Govemativa of Cremona, in 1890 
briefly described a pair of Mercator's globes belonging to 
that library, and what he was able to learn as a result of 
their damaged condition of Mercator's method of construc- 
tion is not without interest. He found that over a frame- 
work composed of thin, narrow strips of wood had been 
pasted first a cloth covering, over this a thin layer of plaster 
and that to this was added a covering of a pastelike sub- 
stance about six or seven millimeters in thickness, consist- 
ing of plaster, wood fiber, or sawdust, and glue. On this 
prepared surface had then been pasted the engraved gores. 
The learned librarian's conjecture as to the manner in which 

[ 133 ] 



Terrestrial and Celestial Globes. 

these globes found their way into Italy, if correct, is of 
interest, pointing as it does to the fonxiation of a great art 
collection in that period. He recalls that Caesar Speciano, 
Bishop of Cremona, had been sent in 1592 as nuncio to 
Germany, and that he had occasion, during his mission, to 
attend to certain matters pertaining to the inheritance of 
William, Duke of Cleves, in whose country there must still 
have existed the workshop of Mercator. The opinion is ex- 
pressed that on the return of the Bishop to Italy he carried 
with him many books and art objects, which had come into 
his hands either through purchase or through gift, and that 
the same passed into the possession of the Cremona Library, 
a library belonging to the Jesuits until the time of the 
suppression of that order.^^ 

The Bibhoteca Municipale of Urbania possesses a pair 
of Mercator's globes of 1541 and 1551, which are reported 
to be in a fair state of preservation. It is thought that they 
may have come into the library's collection through the last 
reigning member of the house, Duke Francesco Maria. 

In the Museo Astronomico of Rome two copies of the 
terrestrial globe of 1541 may be found, and a copy of the 
celestial of the year 1551. These, it will be seen from the 
reproduction (Fig. 62), are not in a good state of preserva- 
tion, although a very considerable portion of the map records 
can be read. 

In addition to the globes of Mercator referred to above, it 
is known that after taking up his residence in Duisburg he 
constructed a small celestial globe of glass, on the surface of 
which he engraved with a diamond the several constella- 
tions, and that he likewise constructed a very small terres- 
trial globe of wood, apparently such as were later called 
pocket globes, having all geographical records given as 
accurately presented as on the larger globes. ^^ 

How great was the direct influence of Mercator on globe 
making activities, it may not be easy to trace, but the evi- 
dence seems to be conclusive, as Breusing has noted, that 

[ 134 ] 




Fig. 62. Terrestrial Globe of Gerhard Mercator, 1541. 



Second Quarter of the Sixteenth Century. 

his should be counted the greatest, among those active within 
this field, for fifty years and more, following the issue of his 
first work in the year 1541. It is among the Italian globe 
makers, and those in the peninsula interested in such instru- 
ments, that we seem to find the first and most striking evi- 
dence of his influence, which will be noted in the following 
pages. 

Giovanni Gianelli of Cremona is referred to, by certain 
early Italian writers, as a clock and globe maker of remark- 
able ability,*^ the justice of which estimate is abundantly 
supported by the character of the one example of his handi- 
work extant, belonging to the Biblioteca Ambrosiana of 
Milan, to which it came from the collection of Canon Man- 
fred Settala about the middle of the seventeenth century. 
This is an armillary sphere of brass, the diameter of its 
largest or zodiacal circle being 14 cm. This circle is gradu- 
ated and has engraved on its outer surface the names of the 
twelve constellations. It is likewise provided with a grad- 
uated equatorial circle, with polar circles and those repre- 
senting the tropics. At the common center of the several rings 
is a small ball, 5 cm. in diameter, which is made to serve 
as a terrestrial globe. On one of the circles is the inscription 
"Janellus MDXLIX Mediolani fecit," and we further find 
inscribed the name "Hermetis Delphini," which perhaps 
tells us of a one-time possessor. In a volume describing the 
museum of Canon Settala, and issued in the year 1666, 
Gianelli and his work are thus referred to : 

"To that great man Gianelli of Cremona there is due 
great honor, whose personal qualities made him an especial 
favorite of His Catholic Majesty Philip II. Among the many 
globes which he constructed our museum possesses one of 
surpassing excellence, in that it exhibits, in addition to other 
movements, that which astrologers call the movement of 
trepidation, and which movement was set forth in theory by 
Thebit."'' 

The Emperor Charles V, when in Pavia, we are told, had 

[ 135 ] 



Terrestrial and Celestial Globes. 

his attention directed to an armillary sphere constructed by 
Dondi in the fourteenth century. On finding this sphere 
much injured by rust and usage he called upon Giovanni 
Gianelli to restore it, but it was reported to be beyond repair. 
Thereupon the Emperor gave direction to have the sphere 
reproduced, which, when completed, was carried by His 
Majesty to Spain. No trace of this work by Gianelli can 
now be found. 

Girolamo Fracastoro, a distinguished Italian physician, 
a famous man of letters, and a great philosopher of the first 
half of the sixteenth century, was also a skilful globe maker, 
as we learn from Ramusio,^^ and from the sketch of his life 
which usually appears as an introduction to his collected 
works.'''' 

Vasari also gives us certain information concerning him, 
noting that he assisted Francesco dai Libri in the construc- 
tion of his large globe,^^ and we are led to believe that he 
was often consulted as an expert by globe makers of his day. 
While none of those he may have constructed are extant, 
what is known of his interest in these aids to geographical 
and astronomical studies entitles him here to a word of 
reference. 

Ramusio says^^ that on the occasion of a visit, with the 
architect Michele S. Micheli, to the home of their common 
friend, Girolamo Fracastoro, at Caffi, they found him in the 
company of a gentleman, a very distinguished philosopher 
and mathematician, who was showing him an instrument 
based on a newly found movement of the heavens ; that after 
they had considered for some time this new movement, they 
had brought before them a large and very detailed globe of 
the entire world, and about this the distinguished gentleman 
began to speak. Fiorini argues, somewhat ingeniously, that 
this globe may have been one constructed by Mercator in 
1541, if not one by Libri, in the making of which Fracas- 
toro himself had assisted. The letters of Fracastoro assure 
us that he made use of globes in his geographical and astro- 

[ 136 ] 



Second Quarter of the Sixteenth Century. 

nomical studies, and that his friends did Ukewise. Januar}' 
25, 1533, he wrote Ramusio, "If you should chance to speak 
to that master who made your metal spheres, I should like 
you to ascertain how much a simple but perfect one, one 
foot in diameter, would cost." Writing again to Ramusio 
January 10, 1534, concerning the "Southern Cross," he 
adds: "Just reflect a little, and if you have not sent away 
the celestial globe, look at that Centaurus and you will find 
all that I am writing to you. You might perhaps write about 
these doubts to Mr. Oviedo, or perhaps I might; it would 
be a good idea and we might ask him about the ver)' promi- 
nent star in the right foot to ascertain whether it is a sepa- 
rate star or is one of those in the 'Southern Cross.' " On the 
twenty-fifth of January, 1548, he again wrote to Ramusio: 
"On my globe Zeilan is just below the Cape of Calicut, on 
the equinoctial line, and it may be that which Jambolo dis- 
covered was Zeilan or Taprobana; I am inclined to believe 
it was Taprobana." His letter of May 10, 1549, also to 
Ramusio, is of special interest, indicating, as it does, his 
estimate of the value of terrestrial and celestial globes in 
the study of astrology (astronomy) and geography. "In re- 
gard to what you write me about M. Paolo, I thoroughly 
approve of his taking up the sacred study of astrolog}' and 
geography, subjects of study for every learned gentleman 
and nobleman, as he would have as his guide and teacher 
the very well-known Piedmontese to whom we owe so many 
excellent things, but first I should advise you to have M. 
Paolo construct two solid spheres. On one of these should 
be represented all the celestial constellations, and the circles 
should all have their place, that is to say, not as Ptolemy 
represents the stars as they were located in his time, but 
according to the investigations of our own times, that is, 
about twenty degrees further east. The other should be a 
terrestrial globe constructed according to modern ideas, 
which he should always follow in his studies. He will use 
the first globe for a thousand and one things; it will be his 

[ 137 ] 



Terrestrial and Celestial Globes. 

guide by day and by night, and by making use of the quad- 
rant he will be able easily to locate the things to be seen 
in the heavens. Then when he shall have been well started 
I want that you should have him read that little book of 
mine on homocentricity, wherein he will be able to learn 
what astrology is, but for the present let him learn ordinary 
astrology which has been treated in so barbarous a manner 
as to lose much of its dignity." Writing again from Verona 
January 21, 1550, to Paolo, after telling him what he 
should point out to his father, he says: "You will tell him 
also that M. Michele di San Michele has seen my globe and 
that he likes it. . . . When I come I will make note of the 
principal places, for I desire very much to verify them with 
the report of navigators telling what they have found, con- 
cerning which matter, I think, no one knows more than you 
do, or especially your distinguished father. As to the celestial 
sphere, I should like very much to compare one I have with 
the one your father is having made, that I may learn how the 
constellations compare, and how many more of the fixed 
stars have been inserted. I have changed their position 
twenty degrees. Whether he agrees with me or not I do not 
know." 



NOTES 

1. Harrisse. Discovery, p. 247. 

2. This is clearly recorded in such important maps as the Cantino, Canerio, 
Waldseemiiller, Schoner globe maps of 1515 and 1520, Boulengier gores, 
Liechtenstein gores, et al. 

3. Wieser, F. R. v. Die Karte des Bartolomeo Columbo iiber die vierte 
Reise des Admirals. Innsbruck, 1893. 

4. See above, p. 88. 

5. A letter written by Maximilianus Transylvanus to the Cardinal of 
Salzburg, dated Valladolid, October, 1522, and published in Cologne in 
January, 1523, under the title 'De Molucca insulis . . . ,' gave the first 
printed notice of Magellan's voyage. See Harrisse. B. A. V. Nos. 122, 123, 
124. There are numerous editions of Antonio Pigafetta's account of the 
Magellan voyage, which account is the principal original source of in- 

[ 138 ] 



Second Quarter of the Sixteenth Century. 

formation concerning that eventful circumnavigation. See J. A. Robertson 
(Ed.), Pigafetta, Antonio. Magellan's Voyage around the World. 

6. MacNutt, F. A. Letters of Cortes to Charles V. New York, 1908. This 
English edition of the letters of Cortes contains a brief biographical sketch 
with valuable notes. Cortes, to the last, appears to have believed in the 
existence of a strait through which one might find a shorter way from 
Spain to the Indies of the East than was hitherto known. Sanuto Livio. 
Geographia distincta. Venitia, 1588. Argument against the idea of an Asiatic 
connection is advanced by Sanuto on the ground that the natives were 
frightened at Cortes's horses. Asiatics were acquainted with the horse. 

7. Estevan Gomes, who had sailed with Magellan, undertook in 1524, 
under a royal commission, "the search for a new route leading to Cathay 
between the land of Florida and the Baccalaos," says Peter Martyr. Decad 
VI, lib. X. 

8. In this volume, verso of seventh leaf, Franciscus states that in at- 
tempting to prepare his description of a globe, he had collected all the 
maps of the world he could find. He especially commends one attributed 
to Maximilianus Transylvanus, and although constructed with much skill, 
he could not agree with its geographical representations, admitting, how- 
ever, that many did accept the same, but objecting to the separation of 
Calvacania (Mexico) from the eastern country because he believed it to 
be joined to the kingdom of the Great Khan. See Harrisse. Discovery, 
pp. 281, 548. 

9. Stevenson. Maps illustrating early discovery. No. 10 of this series is 
a reproduction of Maiollo's map in the size and in the colors of the original. 

10. Harrisse. Discovery, p. 546. 

11. Gallois, L. De Orontio Finaeo. Paris, 1890. 

12. Hakluyt, R. Discourse on Western Planting. Ed. by Charles Deane, 
with introduction by Leonard Wood. (In : Maine Historical Society, Col- 
lections, second series, ii, and printed as Documentary History of the State 
of Maine. Vol. II. Cambridge, 1877. Chap. XVII, §11, p. 116.) 

In chapter 10 of the Discourse Hakluyt refers to the Locke map and its 
configurations, which map clearly is a modified reproduction of Verrazano's 
map of 1529. 

13. Harrisse. Discovery, pp. 562-568. 

14. Nordenskiold. Facsimile Atlas, p. 89. The author reproduces the 
Finaeus map from a 1566 reprintj observing that he was unable to locate a 
copy of the 1536 edition. 

15. Schefer, C. H. A. Le discours de la navigation de Jean et Raoul 
Parmentier. Paris, 1883. p. ix. The citation is from a contemporary source. 

16. Vasari, G. Lives of the painters. Tr. by Mrs. J. Foster. London, 
1850-1885. (In: Bohn Library, Vol. Ill, pp. 449-450.) 

17. Blau, M. Memoires de la Societe Royal de Nancy. Nancy, 1836. pp. 
xi-xiv, 107. An excellent reproduction of the globe in hemispheres accom- 
panies this article ; Vincent, R. P. Histoire de I'ancienne image miraculeuse 
de Notre-Dame de Sion. Nancy, 1698. This work contains the first description 
of the globe ; De Costa, B. F. The Nancy Globe. (In : The Magazine of 
American History. New York, 1881. pp. 183-187.) A representation of the 
globe in hemispheres is presented with this article, being a slightly reduced 
copy of the Blau illustration ; Nordenskiold. Facsimile Atlas, p. 82 ; same, 
Periplus, p. 159; Winsor. Narrative and Critical History. Vol. II, p. 433, 

[ 139 ] 



Terrestrial and Celestial Globes. 

also Vol. Ill, p. 214; Compt-Rendu, Congres des Americanistes. Paris, 1877. 

P- 359. 

18. The probability is it was not originally constructed for this purpose, 
although globe goblets were not uncommon in this century. See below, p. 199. 

19. Quetelet, L. A. J. Histoire des sciences mathematiques et physiques 
chez les Beiges. Brussel, 1871. pp. 78 ff . ; Ruscelli, G. La Geografia di 
Claudio Tolomeo. p. 32, there is reference to a "Globo, grande" ; Kastner, 
Vol. II, pp. 579 ff.; Breusing, A. Leitfaden durch das Wiegenalter der 
Kartographie bis zum Jahre 1600. Frankfurt, 1883. p. 32. 

20. This book appears to be one of the earliest works treating of the 
scientific construction of globes, and of the use of trigonometry in the 
preparation of the globe gores. 

21. The representation closely resembles that given by Schoner. See 
Fig. 54. 

22. Ruge, W. Ein Globus von Gemma Frisius. (In : Internationaler Amer- 
ikanisten-Kongress, vierzehnte Tagung. Stuttgart, 1904. pp. 3-10.) 

23. See below, p. 128, for the novelty introduced by Mercator, in which 
he truncated the gores near the poles. 

24. Racmdonck, J. van. Gerard Mercator, sa vie et ses oeuvres. St. Nicolas, 
1869. p. 38. 

25. Nordenskiold. Facsimile Atlas, pp. 87-90. On map projection in gen- 
eral, see Wagner, H. Lehrbuch, der Geographie. Leipzig, 1903. Chap, iv ; 
Zondervan, H. Allgemeine Kartenkunde. Leipzig, 1901. Chap. iii. See also 
references below to Mercator's world map of the year 1538, p. 125. 

26. Harrisse, H. Un nouveau globe Verrazanien. (In : Revue de Geo- 
graphic. Paris, 1895. pp. 175-177.) An extensive Verrazanian bibliography 
may be found in Phillips, P. L. Descriptive list of maps of Spanish posses- 
sions in the United States. Washington, 1912. pp. 39-40. 

27. See Stevenson reproduction, n. 9, above. 

28. See Stevenson reproduction, n. 9, above. 

29. See references to Ulpius below, p. 117. 

30. Compare this mounting with that of Schoner as seen in Fig. 26. 

31. This is a tract of 44 pages. 

32. Schoner, J. Opera Mathematica. Norimbergae, 1551. See p. 127 for 
what has been thought to be a representation of Schoner's terrestrial and 
celestial globes of 1533. It will be noted that the maps in each of these 
globe pictures have been reversed. 

33. See above, p. 96. 

34. Wicser. Magalhaes-Strasse. p. 76, and Tab. V, which is a copy of the 
southern hemisphere ; Harrisse. Discovery, pp. 592-594, and pi. XVII, which 
is a copy of the western hemisphere ; Santarem, V. de. Notice sur plusieurs 
monuments geographiques inedits. . . . (In : Bulletin de la Societe de 
Geographie. Paris, 1847. p. 322.) ; Stevens, H. Notes. New Haven, 1869. 
p. 19 ; Nordenskiold. Facsimile Atlas, pp. 80, 83 ; Winsor. Narrative and 
Critical History. Vol. VIII, p. 388. 

35. Harrisse. Discovery, p. 610. 

36. Harrisse. Discovery, p. 613, and pi. XXII, which is a representation 
of the western hemisphere. 

37. Michow, H. Caspar Vopell ein Kolner Kartenzeichner des 16 Jahr- 
hunderts mit 2 Tafeln und 4 Figuren. (In: Hamburgische Festschrift zur 

[ 140 ] 



Second Quarter of the Sixteenth Century. 

Erinnerung an die Entdeckung von Amerlka. Hamburg, 1892. Vol. I, pt. 4.) ; 
Graf, J. H. Ein Astrolabium mit Erdkugel aus dem Jahrc 1545, von Kaspar 
Volpellius. (In: Jahresbcricht d. Geographischen Gesellschaft zu Munchen. 
15 Heft, p. 228; Nordenskiold, op. cit., p. 83, and pi. XL, which gives a 
representation of the globe of 1543, twelve gores in colors; Merlo, J. J. 
Nachrichten vom Leben und den Werken Kolner Kiinstler, Koln, 1850. 

P- 493- 

38. Nordenskiold, op. cit., pi. XLV. 

39. Korth, L. Die Kolner Globen des Kaspar Vopelius. (In : Globus. 
Braunschweig, 1883. Vol. XLIV, pp. 62-63.) 

40. Described briefly by Michow, op. cit., p. 12. 

41. Letter of August 12, 1913. 

42. Described briefly by Michow, op. cit., p. 13. 

43. Described by Michow, op. cit., p. 14. Michow cites a letter written by 
Postell to Abr. Ortelius, April 9, 1567, in which the accusation is made 
against Vopel that merely to please the Emperor Charles V he had joined 
America and Asia in his globe map. In this letter the New World is called 
Atlantis. 

44. Such globes, it will be noted, represent the Ptolemaic system. 

45. Fiorini. Sfere terrestri e celcsti. p. 214. 

46. Wieser, F. R. v. A. E. Nordenskiold's Facsimile Atlas. (In : Peter- 
manns Geographischen Mitteilungen. Gotha, 1890. p. 275.) 

47. Graf, op. cit., n. 37. 

48. Compare with that reproduced by Nordenskiold, n. 38 above. 

49. Giinther. Erd- und Himmelsgloben. p. 57 ; Doppelmayr, op. cit., p. 
56. Hartmann was a noted manufacturer of globes and mathematical instru- 
ments in Niirnberg. In his youth he spent several years in Italy, probably 
in Venice. 

50. De Costa, B. F. The Globe of Ulpius. (In : Magazine of American 
History. New York, 1879. pp. 17-35.) Accompanying the article is a re- 
draughted representation of the western hemisphere ; same author. Verrazano 
the Explorer. New York, 1881. (In: Magazine of American History. New 
York, 1881. p. 64.); Winsor, op. cit.. Vol. Ill, p. 214; Harrisse, H. Notes 
sur la Nouvelle France. Paris, 1872. p. 222; Murphy, H. C. Inquiry into 
the authenticity of Verrazano's claims. New York, 1903. p. 114. 

51. Thatcher, J. B. Christopher Columbus. New York, 1903. Vol. II, pp. 
93-209. In these pages may be found a critical consideration of questions 
relating to the subject of the Line of Demarcation. Linden, H. V. Alex- 
ander VI and the demarcation of the maritime and colonial domains of 
Spain and Portugal, 1493-1494. (In: American Historical Review. 1916. 
pp. 1-21.) 

52. Polidori, P. De vita gestis et moribus Marceli II, Pontificis Maximi 
commentarius. Romae, 1744; Cordelia, L. Memorie storiche dei Cardinal! 
della Sancta Romana Chiesa. Roma, 1792. Vol. IV, p. 225. 

Marcello Cervino was born in the year 1501. For his attainments in 
the field of literature, Italian, Latin, and Greek, in philosophy, jurispru- 
dence, and mathematics he held a place of great distinction among his con- 
temporaries. In the year 1539 he was made a cardinal prefect of the Vatican, 
and the year 1555 he was elevated to the Papacy, but died twenty-one days 
thereafter. 

53. Hall, E. H. Giovanni da Verrazano and his Discoveries in North 

[ 141 ] 



Terrestrial and Celestial Globes. 

America. (In: Fifteenth Annual Report of the American Scenic and His- 
torical Preservation Society. New York, 1910.) 

There is an extensive Verrazano literature. The original letter written 
by the explorer to Francis I of France, under whose auspices he had sailed 
on his voyage of discovery in the year 1524, seems to have been lost, but 
copies of the same, it may have been with alterations, were sent to Ver- 
razano's relatives and friends in Italy. Ramusio, in the year 1556, and Hak- 
luyt, in the year 1582, published one of these copies, and it has since been 
frequently printed. 

In addition to the above, there exists a manuscript copy, sometimes re- 
ferred to as the Florentine or Magliabechian codex, a fragmentary copy in 
the Academy of Cimento, and a manuscript copy recently discovered, which 
from the name of its present owner may be called the Cellere codex. Hall 
has printed the original document and has given an excellent translation of 
the same. 

54. Tiraboschi. Storia. Tom. VII, pt. i, p. 205. 

SS- Fiorini, op. cit., p. 117. 

56. Navarrete, M. F. de. Noticia biografia de Alonso de Santa Cruz. 
Madrid, 1835. Reprinted in his Opuscules. Tom. II; Nicolao, A. Biblioteca 
Hispana. Romae, 1672. Tom. I, p. 37; Harrisse. Discovery, p. 736; also in 
his Jean et Sebastian Cabot, p. 173; Espada, J. de la. Relaciones geograficas 
de Indias, publicalas el Ministerio de Fomento Peru. Madrid, 1885. Tom. 
II, p. xxi ; pp. xxx-xxxvi. 

In the second reference is a reprint of an inventory, made at the time of 
the death of Santa Cruz, of his collection of maps, pictures, and manuscripts 
and especially referred to in the receipt given by Juan Lopez, his successor 
as Royal Cosmographer, mention being made of no less than eighty-seven 
items. 

57. He seems to have produced nothing of special importance in his 
capacity as "Historicus Regius," giving, however, some attention to the 
subjects of heraldry, and genealogy. The question of the determination of 
longitude interested him, and there is still preserved, in the Royal Library 
of Madrid, his manuscript bearing the title "Libro de las longitudes y 
manera que hasta ago se ha tenido en el arte de navegar con sus demonstra- 
ciones y examplos." At the time of his death there was also left a paper in 
manuscript, treating of the subject of longitude, which probably contains 
a summary of suggestions made to the Junta in Sevilla in the year 1536 
"sobre la orden que se ha tenido en el dar de la longitud." 

58. Wieser, F. R. v. Die Karten von Amerika in den Islario General des 
Alonso de Santa Cruz Cosmografo Mayor des Kaisers Karl V, mit der 
spanischen original Texte und einer Kritischen Einleitung. Innsbruck, 1908. 
This work was reviewed by Stevenson, E. L. (In: American Historical Re- 
view. 1910. pp. 392-394-) 

59. Catalogue General des Manuscrits des Bibliotheques Publiques de 
France. Department Tom. XXXII. Paris, 1897- P- 399; Harrisse. Discovery. 
p. 621. 

60. Schuller, R. R. Arcerca del "Yslario General" de Alonso de Santa 
Cruz. London, 1913. (In: Proceedings of the XVIII Session of the Inter- 
national Congress of Americanists. London, 1913. Vol. II, pp. 415-432.) ; 
Islario general de todas las islas del mundo dirigido a la S. C. R. M. del 
rey don Phelipe miestro Senor por Al° de Santa Cruz su cosmographo 

[ 142 ] 



Second Quarter of the Sixteenth Century. 

mayor, con grabados en el texto y varias laminas. (In : Boletin de la Socie- 
dad Geografica de Madrid. Madrid, 1918, 1919-) 

61. Harrisse. Discovery, p. 624; Nordenskiold, Facsimile Atlas, p. 109, 
gives an excellent reproduction of this map. 

62. Dahlgren, E. W. Map of the World by Alonzo de Santa Cruz, 1542. 
Stockholm, 1892. Dahlgren has given us an excellent facsimile of this map, 
with critical text including a summary of the work of Santa Cruz and a 
list of the names on the map. 

63. See p. 150. 

64. Raemdonck, J. v. Gerard Mercator, sa vie et ses oeuvres. St. 
Nicolas, 1869; Wauvermans, H. E. Histoire de I'ecole cartographique beige 
et anveroise au XVI siecle. Anvers, 1895. Vol. II, pp. 37-109; 174-213; 
Breusing, A. Gerhard Kremer, genannt Mercator, der deutsche Geograph. 
Duisbourg, 1869; Raemdonck, J. van. Gerard de Cremer ou Mercator, 
Geographe Flamand. Reponse a la Conference du Dr. Breusing, tenue a 
Duisbourg le 30 mars, 1869. St. Nicolas, 1870 ; Hall, E. H. Gerard Mer- 
cator, his Life and Work. New York, 1878. pp. 163-196. 

65. The University Library is reported to have possessed many of the 
original Mercator manuscripts. One cannot at present tell the fate of these 
manuscripts. They may have been destroyed at the time of the recent Ger- 
man invasion, or have been carried away with other material by the booty- 
loving invaders. 

66. See p. 102. 

67. Raemdonck, J. v. La Geographie ancienne de la Palestine. Lettre de 
Gerard Mercator, mai 22, 1567. St. Nicolas, 1884. This map of Palestine, 
published in large folio size, was dedicated to Frangois Craneveld, Coun- 
seiller to the Grand-Conseil of Malines, and published at Louvain in the 
year 1537. A copy of this cannot now be located. 

68. Raemdonck, J. v. De groote kaart van Vlaanderen vervaardidg in 
1540 door G. Mercator, bij middel van lichtdruk weergeg. naar het ex. 
behoorende aan het Museum Plantin-Moretus. ... en voorzien met eens 
verklarende inleiding. Antwerp, 1882. This map, in four sheets, measuring 
110 by 80.6 cm., was dedicated to Charles V and published at Louvain. 

69. Raemdonck, J. v. Orbis Imago. Mappemonde de Gerard Mercator. 
St. Nicolas, 1882. (In: Annales du Cercle Archeologique du Pays de Waes. 
St. Nicolas, 1882. Tom. X, 4™^ Livr.) 

On the title-page of a separate of this article we read "Notice publiee a 
I'occasion de la reproduction par la phototypie du seul exemplaire connu de 
la susdite mappemonde conserve par la Societe de geographie d'Amerique, 
a New-York, reproduction due a la sollicitude eclairee et genereuse de cette 
meme societe." "Seul exemplaire connu" is not correct. A fine example of 
the original 1538 edition may be found in the New York Public Library. 

In addition to the reproduction prepared by The American Geographical 
Society a fine facsimile may be found in Nordenskiold. Facsimile Atlas, pi. 
XLIII ; also by Lafrere about 1560. 

A comparison with the Orontius Finaeus double cordiform map of the 
year 1531 is interesting. It has been stated that Mercator copied the work 
of Finaeus. The projections appear to be practically identical, but it will be 
noted that Mercator represents the New World as independent of the Old 
World, whereas Finaeus represents the Asiatic connection. Fiorini, M. Le 
projezioni cordiformi nella cartografia. Rome, 1889. (In: Boll, della Societa 
Geografica Italiana. Roma, 1889.) 

[ 143 ] 



Terrestrial and Celestial Globes. 

70. See p. 76. 

71. Heyer, A. Drei Mercatorkarten in der Breslauer Stadtbibliothek. (In: 
Zeitschrift fiir Wissenschaftliche Geographic. Weimar, 1890. pp. 379-389; 
474-487 ; 507-528.) ; Drei Karten von Gerhard Mercator, Europa, Britische 
Inseln, Weltkarte. Facsimile-Lichtdruck nach den Originalen der Stadtbiblio- 
thek zu Breslau. Herausgegeben von der Gesellschaft fiir Erdkunde zu 
Berlin. 41 Tafeln. Berlin, 1891. With title "Europae descriptio." 

The map of Europe in six sheets, four of which were engraved at Lou- 
vain and two at Duisbourg, was dedicated to Antoine Perrenot, Bishop of 
Arras, and published at Duisbourg in the year 1554. The only original 
example now known is that belonging to the Breslau Library. 

72. This map with title "Britannicarum insularum descriptio" was pub- 
lished at Duisbourg in the year 1564. Reproduction of the only known 
original example noted in n. 71. 

73. This was prepared with great care and offered in person by Mercator 
to Duke Charles of Lorraine at Nancy. Apparently no original copy is in 
existence. 

74. Raemdonck. Orbis Imago; Breusing, A. Das Vcrcbnen der Kugelober- 
flache. Bremen, 1893. pp. 31-48; Steinhauser, A. Stabius redivivus, eine 
Reliquie aus dem 16 Jahrhundert. (In: Zeitschrift fiir Wissenschaftliche 
Geographie. Wien, 1885. pp. 289-291.) ; D'Avezac, M. A. P. de. Coup d'oeil 
historique sur la projection des cartes de geographie. Paris, 1875. (In: Bulle- 
tin de la Societe de Geographie de Paris. Paris, 1865. Tom. V.) ; Wright, E. 
The correction of certain errors in navigation. London, 1599. 

There may be found numerous references to the principle underlying the 
Mercator projection. See in addition to above references Wagner, op. cit. ; 
Zondervand, op. cit. ; Hall, op. cit., each with noted citations. 

This map, with title "Nova et aucta orbis terrae descriptio ad usum navi- 
gantium emendate accommodata," was dedicated to Duke William of Cleves, 
and was published at Duisbourg in the year 1569. Original copies may be 
found in the Bibliotheque Nationale, and in the Stadtbibliothek of Breslau, 
the former reproduced by Jomard, the latter as noted in n. 71. A long in- 
scription on the map explains the principle of the new projection and its 
use for navigation. 

75. Raemdonck, J. van. Les spheres terrcstre et celeste de Gerard Mercator 
(1541-1551). Notice publiee a I'occasion de la reproduction de ces spheres a 
I'aide de facsimile de leurs fuseaux origineaux, graves par Mercator et con- 
serves a la Bibliotheque Royale a Bruxelles. St. Nicolas, 1875; Fiorini 
M. Globi di Gerardo Mercatore in Italia. Rome, 1890. (In: Bollitino della 
Societe Geografica Italiana. Roma, 1890.) ; Breusing. Gerhard Kremer, p. 9. 
Gerard Mercator, p. 9. 

This author writes: "Auch seine mechanischen Arbeitcn hatten bei den 
Mannern der Wissenschaft eine so giinstige Aufnahme gcfunden, dass er 
dadurch ermutigt wurde, sich an cin grosseres Werk, einen Erdglobus, zu 
machen, den er nach anderthalbjahriger Arbeit im Jahre 1541 voUendete 
und dem kaiserlichen Geheimrate und Reichssiegeldewahrer Granvella wid- 
mete. Und wenn Ruscelli uns erzahle, er habe mit Staunen einen herrlichen 
Globus von drei und halben Palme im Durchmesser betrachten miissen, der 
von deutscher Arbeit und Granvella gewidmet gewesen sei und an Schiinheit 
der Zeichnung und Schrift alles friiher Geleistete iibertreffe, so ist wohl 
kaum ein Zweifel, dass dies der fragliche Globus Mercators gewesen ist. 
Ich will hier gleich hinzufiigen, dass im ganzen XVI Jahrhundert, wenn von 

[ H4 ] 



Second Quarter of the Sixteenth Century. 

ausgezeichneten Globen die Rede ist, diejenigen Mercators immer als die 
besten genannt werden." 

76. Giinther, S. Geschichte der loxodromischen Kurve. Halle, 1879. (In: 
Studien zur Geschichte der mathematischen und physikalischen Geographie. 
Halle, 1879. Heft 6.) ; Griinert, J. A. Loxodromische Trigonometrie. Leip- 
zig, 1869; Hues, R. Tractatus de globis ; Markham, Ed. See pp. 127-147. 

77. This was edited by Van Raemdonck and published at St. Nicolas, 
1888. 

78. Ghymmius, op. cit. Caput decimum, Gerardi Mercatoris De mundi 
creatione ac fabrica ; Raynaud, A. Le Continent Austral, hypotheses et de- 
couvertes. Paris, 1893 ; Wieser, Magalhaes-Strasse, Chap. VI, with references. 

79. See references in n. 75. 

80. Baily, F. The Catalogues of Ptolemy, Ulug Beigh, Tycho Brahe, 
Halley, Hevelius, deduced from the best authorities. London, 1843. Consult 
for lists of the several constellations. 

81. See a reference to the sale of Mercator globes. (In: Zeitschrift fiir 
Wissenschaftliche Geographie, I Jahrgang, p. 180.) 

82. Blundeville, T. Exercises, pp. 204-243. 

83. Ruscelli, op. cit.. Cap. IV. 

84. Fiorini. Sfere terrestre et celeste, p. 144. 

85. Fiorini. Sfere, etc. p. 140. 

86. Mercator, G. Declaratio insigniorum utilitatum. St. Nicolas, 1888. Ed. 
by Raemdonck, J. v. 

87. Sacco, B. De italicarum rerum varietate et elegantia. Papiae, 1565, 
lib. X, fol. 76. 

88. Thebit, an Arabic astronomer, to whom reference is here made, lived 
in the latter part of the ninth century. He was chiefly distinguished for his 
revision of the 'Almagest.' 

89. Ramusio, G. B. Navigationi et Viaggi. Vol. III. 

90. Hieronymi Fracastorii Veronensis opera omnia. The biography is 
thought to have been written by Adamo Fumano. 

91. See above, p. 100. 

92. Ramusio, op. cit.. Vol. I. 




[ HS ] 



Chapter VIII 

Globes and Globe Makers of the Third 
Quarter of the Sixteenth Century 

Revival of interest in globe making in Italy. — Frangois De Mongenet 
of France and the reprint of his globe maps in Italy. — Gore map 
of Antonius Florianus. — Globe records left by Alessandro Picco- 
lomini, — Ruscelli's directions for globe construction. — Reference 
to the work of Sanuto and Gonzaga. — Armillary sphere of Vol- 
paja. — Excellent workmanship in the celestial-terrestrial globe 
of Christian Heyden. — Metal globes of Johannes Fraetorius. — 
Vasari's reference to the work of Ignazio Danti. — The iron globe 
of Francisco Basso. — Armillary sphere of Giovanni Bar- 
rocci. — The work of Hieronymo de Boncompagni. — Emanuele 
Filiberto. — Anonymous globe of 1575. — Laurentian armillary 
spheres. — Small globes of the Biblioteca Nationale of Flor- 
ence. — Mario Cartaro. 

j4 MONG those interested in map and globe making, in 
/_% the third quarter of the sixteenth century, none 
A m seems to have surpassed the Italians. In the art of 
map engraving they attained to a high degree of merit, and 
much of the finest work of the middle of the century is the 
product of the peninsula. With few exceptions it is the Ital- 
ians who hold the field in this line of scientific activity. 
There can undoubtedly be traced here the influence of 
Mercator, but there appear to have been not a few who 
worked on what might be called independent lines. The 
interest of illustrious personages in the construction and the 
possession of globes prompted activity in this field. While 
the number extant, of those manufactured in this period, is 

[ 146 ] 



Third Quarter of the Sixteenth Century. 

not large, there are not a few references in letters and in 
scientific works assuring us of the construction of many 
which cannot now be traced. 

We may call attention first to Francois De Mongenet, 
who appears to have been a native of Franche-Comte and 
well known in his day as a globe maker. He was, however, 
quite forgotten until a few years since, when a copy each of 
his terrestrial and celestrial globe gores was purchased by the 
antiquarian Rosenthal of Munich,^ and sold to Mr. Kalb- 
fleisch of New York, from whose collection they passed into 
the possession of the New York Public Library. Since this 
discovery of De Mongenet's interesting work, a number of 
copies of the same or of subsequent editions have come to 
light, both of the terrestrial and of the celestial globe, some 
of which copies are mounted, some remain unmounted, some 
are of his first edition of the year 1552, others are of the 
second edition, undated, somewhat altered, and printed in 
Italy. All of his globes are of small size, having each a diam- 
eter of about 85 mm. 

De Mongenet was bom at Vesoul in France, and in the 
university of his town he studied medicine, mathematics, and 
probably geography or cosmography. There seems to be but 
little known concerning the family to which Francois be- 
longed, but such details as it was possible to gather Marcel 
brought together in a carefully prepared paper.' This author 
thinks it probable that he could be counted among the circle 
of learned and distinguished men whom Granvella was ac- 
customed to bring together in his palace at Besancon on fre- 
quent occasions during the five years he passed in that city 
after he had given over his administration of the Nether- 
lands. If true, there "^.dj here be found a connecting link 
between De Mongenet and Mercator, remembering that the 
latter dedicated his globe of 1541 to the father of the dis- 
tinguished cardinal statesman.^ The suggestion of Mer- 
cator's influence on De Mongenet appears quite evident on a 
comparison of the outlines of their globe maps. 

[ 147 ] 



Terrestrial and Celestial Globes. 

The Lenox copy of the terrestrial gores (Fig. 63) is ded- 
icated to "Eximio Viro: D: I: P: A Monte Maiore," while 
the celestial gores (Fig. 64) carry the dedication "Eximio 
Viro D. Gabrieli a Tiesbach." Marcel is of the opinion that 
the dedication of the first to "Monte Maiore" refers to a 
prelate of the illustrious house of Granmont, whose name in 
the sixteenth century was often spelled Grandmont, and 
that Gabrieli Tiesbach (Diesbach) belonged to a family of 
Besangon, originally from Freiburg, and that he was a knight 
of St. George. The author and date legend of the first reads 
"Faciebat Franciscus De Mongenet anno 1552," while that 
of the second reads "Elaborabat Franciscus De Mongenet. 
Anno 1552." The gores of each map as printed measure 
from pole to pole 13.7 cm., the length of the equatorial line 
being 27.5 cm. Around each set there is a narrow black bor- 
der. A zodiacal circle is likewise printed on the first 
sheet 5 cm. in width, and of sufficient length to encompass 
the gores when mounted, being divided into twelve parts, 
in which, in regular order, are the figures of the twelve 
zodiacal constellations. With but few exceptions the several 
inscriptions are in small capitals, and are well executed. 

The draughtsmanship which the terrestrial map exhibits 
in all parts, as well as that exhibited by the celestial, dis- 
plays skill of very considerable merit. The general outline 
of the New World's coasts is quite as well done as on any 
of the maps of the day, the Pacific coast line of North 
America sweeping in a great curve northward and north- 
eastward, while a great broad stretch of ocean separates the 
continent from Asia. In North America we find only the 
inscriptions "Hispania maior" and "baccalea." South Amer- 
ica bears the inscription "America," so extended as to cover 
the continent. The names of geographical localities are com- 
paratively few, the size of the globe making it impossible 
to insert many details. 

On a second pair of De Mongenet's globes, referred to by 
Marcel, the dedications and inscriptions differ slightly from 

[ 148 ] 







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Third Quarter of the Sixteenth Century. 

those given above. On the terrestrial gores we find "lUustr. 
Ac Rever. D. D. CL. A. Bauma Arch. Bis.," and the signa- 
ture, "Elaborabat Francis. De Mongenet. V. E. V." On the 
celestial gores we read "lUustr. Ac Rever. D. D. CL. A. 
Bauma Arch. Bis. E. V.," the signature "Elaborabat Fran- 
ciscus De. Mongenet. V.," and the privilege "Cum privilegio 
Pont. Max. Sqe. Ven." Citing again Marcel's opinion, the 
Claudio de la Baume referred to was Archbishop of 
Besangon, and the letter "V" placed after the name of the 
globe maker doubtless refers to Vesoul, his birthplace; the 
letters "E. V." may stand either for "Excusum Venetiis," 
indicating the city in which the work was done, or for "Enea 
Vico," the name of the actual engraver of the gores, who 
is known as having been at that time an engraver of medals, 
being now especially remembered for his medals of the first 
twelve Emperors of Rome.* 

The gores of the first edition were printed from engraved 
wooden blocks; the second were printed from engraved 
copper plates which exhibit a very superior workmanship, 
and it is to be noted that many more names appear on the 
terrestrial gores than on those of the first edition. Ruscelli, 
in his edition of Ptolemy of 1561, makes mention of "a 
little globe, published lately by Francesco Mongonetto 
Borgonone,"^ which allusion would seem to indicate a refer- 
ence to the second edition and to its issue near 1561. Al- 
though this second edition contains more names than 
does the first, it gives little indication that the author had 
knowledge of discoveries subsequent to the first edition. 
Like Mercator he represents North America as separated 
from Asia, as before noted, by a wide expanse of ocean, to 
which no name has been given, and like Mercator he lays 
down a large austral continent. His globes could hardly 
have been received with as much favor as were those by his 
Flemish contemporary, since they were so small as to appear 
like mere playthings. 

Of the first edition, other than those gores to be found in 

[ 149 ] 



Terrestrial and Celestial Globes. 

the New York Public Library, a set of the terrestrial and 
the celestial gores is in the British Museum, and of 
the terrestrial in the Germanisches Nationalmuseum of 
Niimberg. 

Of the second edition, copies of the unmounted gores may- 
be found in the Bibliotheque Nationale, in the British 
Museum, in the private library of Prince Trivulzio of 
Milan. A mounted pair of the second edition may be found 
in the Osservatorio Astronomico of Rome (Fig. 65), and 
in addition a second example of the celestial globe, which 
is described as having excellent mountings of brass, so 
arranged as to make possible a revolution of the globe both 
on an equatorial axis and an axis of the ecliptic. Its horizon 
circle is supported by two brass semicircles, the whole rest- 
ing on four wooden columns of modern construction, and 
these in turn resting on representations of lion's paws in 
bronze. An example of the mounted terrestrial globe is said 
to belong to the collection of Sr. Bazolle of Belluno, which 
example once belonged to the Counts of Pilloni. 

Attention has been called to the peculiar gore map of 
Santa Cruz," and to the fact that his method of construction 
seems not to have won favor. We, however, find among the 
map makers of Italy, in the period of which we are now 
speaking, one Antonius Florianus,^ who, if not copying the 
plan of Santa Cruz, followed closely his scheme. His map, 
of which numerous copies are known (Fig. 66), seems to 
have been prepared for mounting on a ball, although no 
such mounted example can now be located. With the poles 
as centers, and with a radius equal to one quarter of the 
circumference of the sphere he proposed to construct, he 
drew his equatorial circles, which thus gave him two hemi- 
spheres, respectively, a northern and a southern; in the same 
manner he drew his parallels at intervals of ten degrees, 
using for each the common polar centers. In each of the 
hemispheres he drew thirty-six sectors, each sector being 
made to represent ten degrees of longitude, and they were 

[ 150 ] 







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Third Quarter of the Sixteenth Century. 

so shaped mathematically that their combined width at the 
equator would equal the circumference of the sphere of 
which the selected radius, referred to above, represented 
one quarter of that circumference. When prepared for 
mounting, the vacant space between the several sectors 
could be cut away, leaving the thirty-six engraved sectors, 
on which the world map appeared, to be pasted on the sur- 
face of the sphere. The scheme which Florianus devised was 
practically that employed by Werner in his equivalent 
cordiform projection, and likewise that of Finaeus and 
Mercator.^ 

It was the eighteenth of January, in the year 1555? that 
Florianus obtained a copyright from the Venetian senate 
for his map,'^ but it is probable he died before the map 
appeared in print, since there is evidence of incompleteness 
in the known copies. In the spaces, with artistic borders, 
which had been designed for inscriptions, nothing appears, 
and in but two of the four cartouches evidently intended for 
portraits do such portraits appear, viz., that of Ptolemy and 
of the author himself. 

The geographical outlines of the map closely resemble 
those of De Mongenet, as well as those of Mercator. North 
America is given practically the same shape. The great 
expanse of ocean lying between this continent and Asia is 
called "Oceanus orientalis indicus," and midway between 
the continents, in latitude 45 degrees, is "Sipango." North 
America is called "Americae," also "Hispania maior," while 
South America is likewise called "Americae." The great 
austral land is represented but is unnamed. The whole is 
indeed a fine example of Italian copper engraving. 

Numerous copies of Florianus' map are known. It usually 
appears in the Lafreri collection, and Fiorini notes that 
copies may be found in the Archivo di State of Turin, in 
the Marciana of Venice, in the Biblioteca Vittorio Eman- 
uele of Rome, in the Biblioteca Comunale of Treviso, in the 
private library of Professor Marinelli of Florence, in the 

[ 151 ] 



Terrestrial and Celestial Globes. 

British Museum, in the private library of Nordenskiold. 
To the above may be added the New York Public Library, 
the Library of Congress, and the Harvard Library, which 
likewise possess copies. 

Among the numerous references appearing here and there 
in the literature of Italy, assuring us of the interest in that 
country in globe construction, reference may be made to 
the record left by Alessandro Piccolomini, a native of Siena, 
and author of a work on the extent of the land and water,^*^ 
who, in the preparation of his work, made extensive study 
of the records to be found in plane maps and globes. In his 
work published in Venice in the year 1558, though his dedi- 
cation to M. Jacomo Cocco, Archbishop of Corfu, reads 
August 28, 1557, "Delia mia casa di S. Giorgio, di Siena, il 
di XXVIII di Agosto MDLVII," he tells of several globes 
which it had been his privilege to examine. "I have zealously 
examined geographical maps, both plain and spherical, and 
especially those which are reputed to be most faithful, for 
example, among others, a solid terrestrial sphere shown me 
by Cardinal Viseo." Another I saw at the home of the Car- 
dinal of Carpi,^' exhibiting mountain elevations in a new 
and excellent manner, and still another much larger kept 
at present at the home of Cardinal of Urbino.^^ There is 
also a globe having a diameter of about an arm's length, 
which I saw two years since at the home of the Archbishop 
of Corfu, and still another I have recently seen about the 
same size or about one arm's length in diameter, which had 
been presented to His Excellency the Duke of Paliano." He 
adds that he had made careful geographical computations 
in his investigations, employing the last-named sphere. As to 
his method of procedure in his studies he states that "first of 
all having placed before me a solid sphere of about three 
feet in diameter, the most exact I have been able to find 
among those referred to above, namely, the one with the 
equinoctial circle and with the meridian passing through the 
Canaries of the Fortunate islands where Ptolemy located the 

[ 152 ] 







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Third Quarter of the Sixteenth Century. 

prime meridian, I have divided it into four equal parts — 
two northern and two southern." It seems probable that the 
globe here referred to is that which he stated belonged to the 
Cardinal of Urbino, and which he noted was larger than was 
that belonging to Cardinal Viseo or to the Cardinal of Carpi, 
the diameter of which he stated to be an arm's length. Pic- 
colomini gives us no intimation as to the authorship of the 
five globes he says he examined. He adds an interesting 
word concerning the character of the globe of Cardinal 
Carpi, seeming to imply that it was not a printed globe, 
since it represented "mountain elevations." We perhaps are 
justified, says Fiorini, in concluding from this and other 
evidence that the maps on these globes were not printed, 
since they were of very large size, and we know that Merca- 
tor's globes 41 cm. in diameter were then considered to have 
special value because larger than others constructed in a 
similar manner, that is, having their maps engraved or 
printed. 

We may here again refer to Ruscelli's directions for globe 
construction,^* to which he added certain suggestions for 
globe adornment, that they might appeal to princes and 
nobles. "Globes of copper, bronze or silver," he says, "such 
as princes would desire to possess, to be fine, durable and 
rare should be plated, that is, the circles, the letters, the 
outlines of the countries should first be engraved and then 
there should be added gold or silver plating." "A generous 
prince," he adds, "could have them made in Asimino or 
Tausia style, as they say, that is, have the copper surface 
engraved, and the grooves filled with silver or gold thread. 
By forcing this in the work can be made very strong." He 
states in one of his chapters that globes so constructed are 
usually small, but he adds that he had seen globes three 
and a half palms in diameter, such as that sent to him by 
Zurelio Porcelaga. Of this last he speaks in words of praise, 
passing on to refer to two large ones then under construc- 
tion in Venice. "One of these," he says, "is of copper being 

[ 153 ] 



Terrestrial and Celestial Globes. 

made by Giulio Sanuto, which it is hoped will be one of 
the best as one of the most beautiful of any constructed up 
to the present time." The implication seems to be, from the 
words of Ruscelli, that at least some part of the printing was 
to be made directly on the surface of the sphere. Further 
information given by Ruscelli touching Sanuto and Gon- 
zaga in this connection is here of interest. He states "besides 
the fact that Giulio Sanuto is very skilful in drawing and 
engraving, especially in geographical maps of the world and 
its parts, he is, in this task, being aided by Livio Sanuto,^' a 
Venetian nobleman, his brother, among whose many good 
qualities he possesses to a degree above the ordinary, are his 
attainments in the profession of geography. Both are giving 
so much attention to this globe that it is expected, in both 
matter and form, it will be perfect. Another globe three 
arm's length in diameter has, since last year, been begun 
by Curtio Gonzaga, which he intends shall contain all of 
those things that Taisnero has included in his globe as well 
as many other things that the said gentleman intends to add, 
hoping to make one of the most beautiful and perfect 
spheres to be seen for many years to come. This can easily 
be believed, for he will do ever\-thing himself, and as the 
greater diligence will thus be exercised we will have all of 
the advantages of his great knowledge of geography, to 
which subject as ever, he is giving all of his attention, and 
the advantage of his great skill in lettering and designing."^® 
Ruscelli maintained that globes are preferable to ordi- 
nary maps in geographical studies, stating that "although 
maps of three or four arm's length and width are to be found 
they are not numerous and are not of great value, and 
furthermore we have globes, which, in extent of space ex- 
hibited, surpass them. Granting that some Princes and cer- 
tain others do have maps very large, as for example, such 
as Pope Paul II had made for the palace of S. Marco in 
Rome, there are also Princes and private persons who have 
globes which in size much surpass the plane maps that I 

[ 154 ] 



Third Quarter of the Sixteenth Century. 

have ever seen or heard of." "Until a few years since 
no one knew how to print such globes, and all were made 
with pen and brush, . . . later geniuses have found a way 
for printing globe maps very accurately, which, in a wonder- 
ful way they can place over the surface of a sphere ; a way 
has also been found for making the spheres round and exact, 
and a method for computing measurements for the coverings 
to fit the sphere, and for the construction of such other 



5>17 



things as belong thereto 

The Volpaja family of Florence achieved considerable 
distinction in the late fifteenth and in the sixteenth century, 
through those members who were interested in the con- 
struction of astronomical instruments and particularly in 
armillary spheres. Vasari tells us that "in the chapel of 
Santa Trinita, in fresco, is a picture of the Magnificent 
Lorenzo de' Medici, father of Pope Leo X. ... In the same 
picture is Lorenzo della Volpaja, a most excellent master 
in the art of making watches, and a distinguished astrologer, 
by whom a most beautiful clock was made for Lorenzo de' 
Medici, which the most illustrious Duke Cosimo now has in 
his palace, and wherein all of the movements of the planets 
are perpetually shown by means of wheels, a very rare 
thing, and the first that was made in that manner."^^ 

At the time of its founding there came to the Museo 
di Strumenti Antichi di Astronomia e di Fisica of Flor- 
ence a fine armillary sphere inscribed "Hieronimus Camilli 
Vulpariae Florent: fe: 1557." It is of gilded metal, having 
five spheres or rings ranging from 60 to 75 mm. in diameter, 
and in addition eighteen circles, including polar, tropical, 
and equatorial circles with meridian and horizon, the latter 
having a diameter of 144 mm. Further information recorded 
by Fiorini tells us that it is mounted on a wooden base." 
On the equatorial circle of the smallest sphere is engraved 
"Deferens Augiem," on the next, "Deferens Epiciculum," 
on the third, "Deferens Augiem," on the fourth, "Deferens 
Dragonem." The fifth sphere is composed of six large cir- 

[ 155 ] 



Terrestrial and Celestial Globes. 

cles and four small ones. The circles which represent the 
meridians, the equator, the ecliptic, and the horizon are 
graduated, while on the ecliptic appear the names of the 
twelve zodiacal constellations, and on the horizon the names 
of the principal winds or directions. This globe is referred 
to as one of special interest because of its peculiar and some- 
what complicated construction; it is mounted on a wooden 
base, which is more modern than the globe proper, and in 
many parts gives evidence of restoration. 

In the same museum there is a second armillary sphere 
constructed by a member of the Volpaja family, perhaps 
by the same one who constructed the preceding. It is in- 
scribed "Hieronimus Vulpariae Florentius Fe. A.D.MD- 
LXIIII" and was a gift to the museum by the Grand Duke 
Leopold I. The diameter of its horizon circle, including the 
attached parts, is 41 cm., and its height, including its base, 
76 cm. It has been described as follows: "An armillary 
sphere, the armillae of which are of gilded brass. The small 
globe within the circles representing the earth is of the 
clearest crystal. The horizon is of gilded brass and rests 
on a branched support ornamented with human heads in 
relief. The lower part of the branches is attached to a base 
resting on three lion's paws. The branches, the heads, the 
base, and the paws are all of brass. In the northern and 
southern sections of the horizon there are attachments con- 
taining receptacles for holding the magnetic needle, but 
which needle in both places is wanting. The equator, the 
tropics, and the polar circles are not zones but are triangular 
prisms bent in the form of circles. Furthermore a part of the 
ecliptic, that is to say, one of its zones, is of gilded brass 
and is graduated, and shows the names of the months and 
the signs of the zodiac. The diameter of the sphere is 12.6 
pollici (inches ^)."'° 

There is to be found in the Mathematical Salon of Dres- 
den a fine example of the work of Christian Heyden (1525- 
1576), son of a rector of the St. Sebaldus School of Niim- 

[ 156 ] 





Fig. 67. Globe of Christian Heyden, 1560. 



Third Quarter of the Sixteenth Century. 

berg. Doppelmayr"^ tells us that after years of study in 
Leipzig and Wittenberg, he returned to his native city, be- 
came interested in making mathematical instruments, and 
in 1 564 he was appointed to a professorship of mathematics 
in the famous Niimberg gymnasium. His biographer does 
not refer to his activity as a globe maker, but tells us that 
about the year 1570 he constructed for the Emperor Maxi- 
milian II a mechanical device for illustrating the movement 
of the sun and the moon, which instrument, he notes, espe- 
cially interested the noted Frenchman, Petrus Ramus, who 
carefully examined it on the occasion of a visit to Niimberg. 
The Dresden example of his work (Fig. 67), the only exam- 
ple known, consists of a brass celestial globe encased in a 
covering of brass, on the surface of which is engraved a 
terrestrial map. It has a diameter of 72 cm., the whole being 
furnished with a horizon, a meridian, and an hour circle. 
This is indeed a choice specimen of a sixteenth-century en- 
graved metal globe, of which we have numerous examples, 
but it is rather an ornamental piece than one of great 
scientific value. 

Doppelmayr likewise gives us a brief biographical note 
referring to one Johannes Praetorius, a globe maker, born 
at Joachimsthal in the year 1537." After a considerable 
period of study, chiefly at Wittenberg, where he turned his 
attention to the philosophical and mathematical sciences, he 
took up a residence in Niimberg in the year 1562. Here he 
became interested in the construction of mechanical and 
astronomical instruments, and soon won the favor of the 
Emperor Maximilian II, which favor he enjoyed to the end 
of that Emperor's reign. It was about the year 1576 that he 
became a professor of mathematics at Altdorf, where he 
died in the year 1616. Doppelmayr refers to a number of the 
mathematical and astronomical instruments constructed by 
him, noting that in the year 1566 he completed two globes 
of metal richly gilded, each having a diameter of 11^ 
inches, that each was furnished with an hour circle, a mov- 

[ 157 ] 



Terrestrial and Celestial Globes. 

able quadrant and semicircles, and that a compass was set 
in the base of each. We learn also from the same biographer 
that in the year 1568 he completed a brass astrolabe having 
a diameter of "one schuh" (foot *?), three and one half 
inches, and that it was supplied with all parts essential to a 
complete apparatus of its character. We are further in- 
formed that shortly after the beginning of his career in 
Altdorf he undertook the construction of a large celestial 
globe of wood and paper, having a diameter of four Niirn- 
berg feet, that he was assisted in this work by the artist 
and draughtsman, Christopher Heinrichs, and that on the 
surface of the sphere one thousand six hundred and fifty 
stars were indicated with appropriate accompanying inscrip- 
tions. 

Two pairs of Praetorius' globes are now known, one 
pair in the Mathematical Salon of Dresden (Fig. 68),^^ and 
the other in the Germanisches National Museum of Niirn- 
berg. These globes are of brass, each having a diameter of 
28 cm.; each is supplied with meridian, horizon, and hour 
circles and rests on a tripod base. They are richly engraved 
pieces, the terrestrial example being remarkably well pre- 
served, the celestial being slightly injured, through rubbing 
which has removed parts of certain figures of the con- 
stellations. 

Among those Italians who, in the sixteenth century, ac- 
quired well-merited fame as globe makers may be mentioned 
Ignazio Danti (1536-1586),^* known as Pellegrino before 
he entered the order of the preaching friars in his nineteenth 
year. The name Danti appears to have been given him 
chiefly on account of his great learning, particularly in the 
field of mathematics and astronomy. In the same branches 
of science his father had achieved distinction, and likewise 
his grandfather, Vicenzo de Rinaldi, who, in the year 1571, 
issued a translation of the 'Sfera' of Sacrobosco, and who 
constructed, as we are told, an astrolabe and an armillary 
sphere. ^° It seems to have been early in the year 1563 that 

[ 158] 




Fig. 68. Globe of Johannes Praetorius, 1566. 



Third Quarter of the Sixteenth Century. 

Danti was called to Florence by Duke Cosimo for the pur- 
pose of constructing, under his patronage, nautical and 
astronomical instruments and geographical maps. Of his 
work which is still known to us there may be first mentioned 
an astronomical quadrant placed on the facade of the church 
of Santa Maria Novella, and an equinoctial armilla placed 
within the same church. We have first mention in Vasari's 
'Lives' of the globe and map work of his which especially 
concerns us here. It is an interesting account of his activity in 
this field, an account worthy of citation. "Fra Ignazio Danti 
is very learned in cosmography and a man of distinguished 
ability in letters, in so much that the Duke Cosimo has 
committed to his care a work than which none more perfect 
in design, or more important in the results to be expected 
from it, has ever been executed in that kind. His excellency 
has caused a room of considerable extent to be prepared on 
the second floor of his palace, as a continuation of, and an 
addition to the guardaroba; around this room he has had 
cabinets arranged seven braccia high, and richly carved in 
walnut wood, intending to place within them the most valu- 
able and beautiful works of art in his possession ; and on the 
doors of the same he has caused fifty-seven pictures, about 
two braccia in height and of proportionate width, to be 
painted in oil on wood in the manner of miniatures. The 
subjects delineated are the Ptolemaic Tables, measured by 
Don Ignazio with the most exact perfection, and corrected 
according to the latest authorities; sea-charts of the utmost 
accuracy are added, the scale and the degrees being adjusted 
with all possible care, and all having the ancient, as well as 
the modern, names ; the division made of these works being 
as follows. At the principal entrance into the room are seen 
four pictures executed on the sides of the cabinets, and repre- 
senting in perspective the halves of four spheres, those below 
showing the earth, and those above the heavens with all 
their signs and celestial figures. Proceeding toward the right 
we have all Europe depicted in fourteen compartm.ents, the 

[ 159 ] 



Terrestrial and Celestial Globes. 

pictures succeeding each other to the center of the wall which 
is at the head of the room, and opposite to the principal 
door, that namely whereon is placed the horologue with its 
wheels, and the daily motions made by the planets in their 
spheres; I mean that so much renowned clock made by the 
Florentine Lorenzo della Volpaja. Above the compartments 
representing Europe, are those of Africa in eleven divisions ; 
these extend to the horologue itself, beyond which and on 
the lower part is Asia, which occupies a consecutive range 
of four compartments, extending to the principal door. 
There are besides the West Indies, which commence from 
the clock, and continue to the principal door; the whole 
series forming the fifty-seven divisions before mentioned. 
On the lower part of the walls and immediately beneath 
the geographical delineations, in an equal number of com- 
partments will be the various plants and animals produced 
by the respective countries, all depicted from nature. Over 
the cornice of the said cabinets, which completes the decora- 
tions, there are to be niches dividing the pictures, and in 
these will be placed certain antique busts in marble, repre- 
senting the Emperors and Princes by whom these lands have 
been possessed, so far as those portraits are known to exist 
or can be procured. The ceiling is entirely in carved wood- 
work, and within the compartments of the same are twelve 
large pictures, in each of which are to be four celestial signs, 
making in the whole forty-eight; the figures are to be but 
little less than life size, each accompanied by its stars. On 
the walls beneath are three hundred portraits of distin- 
guished persons belonging to the last five centuries, or some- 
what more; they are painted in oil; but, that I may not 
make too long a story, I refer the mention of their names 
to the tables of my work. All have frames of similar size, 
very richly carved in oak, and producing an exceedingly 
fine effect." 

"In the two pictures occupying the center of the ceiling, 
each of which is four braccia wide, are the celestial signs; 

[ 160 ] 



Third Quarter of the Sixteenth Century. 

these can be thrown back by means which cannot be per- 
ceived; and in a space representing the concave are to 
be two large spheres, one representing the earth : this will be 
made to descend by a concealed windlass, and will then be 
balanced on a support adequate to that purpose, so that 
when fixed, all the pictures and the maps on the cabinet 
will be reflected therein, each part being thus readily found 
on the sphere. On the other globe the forty-eight celestial 
signs will be arranged, in such sort that all the operations 
of the astrolabe may be performed most perfectly by the 
aid thereof. The plan of this work has proceeded from the 
Duke Cosimo, who desired to have all these parts of the 
earth and heaven brought for once fairly together in their 
just positions, exactly and without errors, to the end that 
they might be observed and measured, either apart or all 
together, as might be desired by those who study and delight 
in this most beautiful science. I have therefore thought my- 
self bound to make a memorial of the same in this place, 
for the sake of Fra Ignazio; and that his ability, with the 
magnificence of that great Prince, who has judged us worthy 
to enjoy the benefits of so honorable a labor, may be made 
known to all the world.""'' 

Danti must have undertaken this great work shortly after 
his arrival in Florence, since one of his maps, to which 
Vasari refers, is dated 1563, and it appears that the terres- 
trial globe must have been finished by 1567, since the gen- 
eral Depositaria of that year, as cited by Badia, records 
that twenty lire were paid to the gold-leaf maker, Taddeo 
di Francesco, for the five hundred leaves of gold to be used 
for the globe, and there is no succeeding entry referring to 
this particular piece of work." We know that he never com- 
pleted the task which had been assigned to him. Duke 
Cosimo's death occurred in the year 1575, and his son and 
successor, Francesco, manifested but little interest in fur- 
thering the cause of science. It was perhaps at the instance 
of Francesco that the general of the Dominican Order 

[ 161 ] 



Terrestrial and Celestial Globes. 

directed Danti to leave Florence, and he passed the re- 
mainder of his days in Bologna. Apparently but thirty of 
the fifty-seven maps which were to be made by Danti were 
completed at the time of his dismissal, and only the terres- 
trial globe. As evidence that he did not construct the celes- 
tial globe, Badia cites a letter written by Antonio Lupicini 
to the Grand Duke Ferdinand, dated October 27, 1587. 
After reference to certain great works planned by Cosimo 
in the last years of his life, such as those referred to by 
Vasari, he adds that "when it seemed that nothing else was 
to be seen in the room, at a certain sign these historical rep- 
resentations disappeared and the cosmography of the whole 
mechanism, constructed after the manner of Ptolemy, was 
uncovered ; in doing so they opened the ceiling and let down 
the representations of the planets, resting them on a stand 
which came out of the floor, and from the floor also appeared 
a terrestrial and a celestial globe each three and a half 
braccia in diameter, one of which had been made by Fra 
Ignazio, and the model of which I myself have.""^ The ter- 
restrial globe, at first placed in the room for which it was 
intended, was later removed to the gallery, where on account 
of much handling it was greatly injured, and in the year 
1 595 the cosmographer, Antonio Santucci, was entrusted with 
its restoration.^'' Admired as it has been for more than three 
hundred years, on account of its size and excellent workman- 
ship, repeatedly handled through all these years by care- 
less visitors, a second restoration was undertaken a few years 
since by Ferdinando Meucci, director of the museum to 
which it finally passed. Meucci directed this work with great 
care, studying minutely the construction of the globe under 
the opportunity thus offered. Fiorini, citing information 
especially given him by Meucci,^" says that the diameter 
of this globe is 2.04 m. ; that the ball is of wood having a 
papier-mache covering, protected without by a wrapping of 
cord and metal plates, and that it is very substantially 
braced within. Danti himself in describing the construction 

[ 162 ] 



Third Quarter of the Sixteenth Century. 

of the globe, on receiving an order for a similar one, says 
that "the surface of this globe is thirty-six square braccia 
and it is supported within by an iron frame, as a globe of 
this size would not stand without bracing; it represents a 
new invention by means of which, though large, it can be 
moved in every direction with a single finger, and its pole 
can be easily elevated or depressed. "^^ These Medici globes, 
it seems, attracted much attention, and not alone in Italy. 
Pontanus, in the preface of his edition of Hues' Tractatus 
de Globis,' after a reference to the celestial globe of Tycho 
Brahe, six feet in diameter, adds that Ferdinand I of Tus- 
cany possessed two globes, one terrestrial and the other 
an armillary sphere with circles and orbs, and that these 
globes were constructed by the same hand.^^ This last state- 
ment we now know to be an error, since the terrestrial globe 
alone was the work of Ignazio Danti, the armillary sphere 
being the work of Antonio Santucci. 

The Biblioteca Nationale of Turin possesses a unique and 
highly interesting globe signed "Franciscus Bassus Medio- 
lanensis feccit 1570," called Basso in his day, although his 
name appears to have been Francesco Pelliccioni or Piliz- 
zoni.^^ In this we have one of the finest examples of the 
style of constructing and ornamenting metal globes, de- 
scribed by Ruscelli as agemina, in which gold and silver 
threads and plates are forced into the engraved outlines on 
the surface of the ball. 

The globe, a hollow iron sphere about 56 cm. in diameter, 
is in an excellent state of preservation. The engraved par- 
allels and meridians are indicated at intervals of ten degrees, 
the prime meridian passing through the Canary Islands. It 
has thus been described by the librarian, Francesco Carta :^* 
"The parts of the globe in gold are the equator, the tropics, 
the polar circles and many mountain chains; the known and 
the unknown polar regions are flaked with gold. In gold are 
the crowns which designate the several kingdoms, the small 
islands and the graduated prime meridian. In gold and silver 

[ 163 ] 



Terrestrial and Celestial Globes. 

are the ships which sail the se?s, the smaller being entirely 
of gold. The ecliptic, the meridians excepting the prime 
meridian, the parallels, the majority of the mountain chains 
of the unknown lands, the rivers, as well as the outlines 
of the lands and the seas. On the graduated horizon circle 
are the Latin names of the winds in silver capital letters. 
These are the twelve winds of Timostenc. A graduated 
metal meridian passes through the poles and is attached to 
the rational horizon which is supported by four small pyram- 
idal columns having quadrangular bases. At the top, and 
fastened to the framework of the globe with a silver ribbon, 
is a silver heart having extended wings, the feathers of which 
are of gold and silver. From this heart rises a small gilded 
design representing an olive branch, having leaves of gold. 
From the lower part of the support hang silver ribbons 
flaked with gold." Practically all inscriptions are in silver 
capital letters, the majority being in Latin, but a few are 
in Italian and in Spanish. To North America which is con- 
nected with Asia, in accord with the idea so prevalent in 
the second quarter of the century, is given the name "Asia 
magna quae India boreal is," and to South America the name 
"America Nova." In addition to the above inscriptions we 
find such as "Hispania Major," "G. d. Anian," "Oceanus 
Indicus," "Sinus Magnus Aphricae." In Brazil is the in- 
scription, "His Leoni Copia," The inscription "Terra Aus- 
tralis recenter inventa anno 1499, sed nondum plene cognita 
terra," closely resembles an inscription similarly placed on 
the world map of Orontius Finaeus of 1531, which reads 
"Terra Austral is recenter inventa sed nondum plene cog- 
nita."^° It does not appear that great scientific value attaches 
to this globe, since there clearly was no attempt to produce 
a terrestrial map to date. It, however, is a most interesting 
example of globe construction in a day when globes were 
so much in favor. 

The Lancisiana Biblioteca of Rome possesses an artisti- 
cally constructed armillary sphere, apparently the work of 

[ 164 ] 



Third Quarter of the Sixteenth Century. 

Giovanni Maria Barrocci, who, in the second half of the 
sixteenth century, achieved distinction as a maker of watches 
and of mathematical instruments. Fiorini gives reason for 
thinking this to be of about the year 1570, as well as reason 
for attributing the work to Barrocci,^^ finding it in an epi- 
taph of a member of the family in which there is allusion 
to the construction of a celestial globe for Pope Pius V. 

Two globes, one celestial attributed to Hieronymo de 
Boncompagni, and one terrestrial attributed to Emanuele 
Filiberto and probably constructed about the year 1 570, are 
briefly referred to by Fiorini as belonging to the Osserva- 
torio del Collegio Romano.^^ Further reference to these 
globes has not been obtainable, there being no mention of 
the same in a communication received by the author from 
this observatory. 

The Biblioteca Nationale Vittorio Emanuele of Rome 
possesses two remarkably fine manuscript globes, a terres- 
trial and a celestial, the latter bearing the inscription "Anno 
JobeP^ 1575 ^d que supputatae sunt stellae." "In the Jubi- 
lee year for which the positions of the stars have been com- 
puted." While not giving with certainty the exact date of 
their construction, it seems that it could not have been later 
than that given in the legend. The globes bear the coat of 
arms of the Jesuits, which may only suggest that the maker 
was a member of that order. Each of these globes, or globe 
balls, is constructed of a wooden framework, covered with 
a preparation of plaster, over which has been added a coat 
of thick varnish. On the surface thus prepared the map has 
been drawn and painted in colors. Each has a diameter of 
about 70 cm., is mounted on a pyramidal base, 77 cm. in 
height, from which rises a rod 45 cm. in length, supporting 
two semicircles which serve as a direct base support for 
the iron horizon circle. The celestial globe has represented on 
its surface the equator, the tropics, the polar circles, the 
colures, the ecliptic, and the zodiac, and the figures repre- 
senting the several constellations. These figures are very 

[ 165 ] 



Terrestrial and Celestial Globes. 

artistically painted, having their several names written in 
gold in the Latin language; some figures and names unfor- 
tunately are wanting by reason of injury to the surface of 
the globe. On the terrestrial globe the equator, the tropics, 
and the polar circles are represented, while but two merid- 
ians are indicated, the prime meridian passing through the 
Canary Islands while the other has been drawn ninety de- 
grees from this, that is, cuts it at right angles at the poles. 

The Biblioteca Laurentiana of Florence possesses four 
small armillary spheres, bearing neither date nor author 
legends. ^^ The larger of these has a diameter of about 32 
cm., is of brass, and rests upon an artistic support composed 
of a group of bronze satyrs. The other three, by reason of 
their close resemblance, appear to be the work of the same 
artist. Each has a diameter of about 23 cm. and a base of 
brass on which stands a small bronze statue, which bears on 
its shoulders a globe. This globe supports the several 
circles composing the armillar\' sphere. The supporting 
statue in one of these is clad and is represented as wearing 
sandals on the feet, supposedly representing the mythical 
Atlas. In another of these the statue is that of a man resting 
on the right knee with the left hand uplifted, while in the 
third the statue is that of a woman resting upon the left 
knee, having the right hand uplifted. These globes are re- 
ported as not being in good condition, but each exhibits 
artistic merit of a high order. 

There is likewise to be found in the Biblioteca Nationale 
of Florence a small celestial globe of bronze, and a celestial 
and terrestrial globe of silver. These globes are neither 
signed nor dated but are thought to belong to the period 
now under consideration. The bronze globe has the con- 
stellations represented in relief. It is exceedingly small, 
having a diameter of about 10 cm. The silver globes have 
diameters about half the preceding, or about 4.5 cm. They 
are furnished with horizon and meridian circles, and have 
mountings which clearly are modern. The several constella- 

[ 166 ] 



Third Quarter of the Sixteenth Century. 

tions represented on the celestial globe are exceedingly well 
done, as are all of the decorative figures appearing on the 
terrestrial globe. Geographical names are necessarily few 
because of the size of the globe. 

Attention has been called to the references which Ruscelli 
makes in his 'Geografia' to globe construction.*" Notice may 
likewise here be called to a similar reference, though much 
more brief, made by Francesco Maurolico, a native of Mes- 
sina, and often referred to as the new Archimedes, because 
of his great fame acquired in the field of mathematics and 
astronomy. In his work, published in the year 1575," he 
devoted part of one chapter to the subject "De sphaera 
solida," describing the construction of a celestial globe, and 
the use of the same. We have no evidence that he was ever 
engaged in the construction of such instruments as aids in 
the study of his science. 

Lastly, in this chapter, mention may be made of the work 
of Mario Cartaro. It appears that with his work that of 
the Italian globe makers of the century practically came to 
a close; the names of but two or three appear in the last 
quarter. 

Cartaro first achieved distinction as a designer and en- 
graver in Rome, where he issued a work containing the por- 
traits of the first twenty-four Roman Emperors." From 
Rome it appears that he went to Naples, where he continued 
to reside until the time of his death. That he was much 
favored in Naples is attested by the fact that he was given 
a commission to design or to represent all places and plants 
in the kingdom, and to receive for the same "ten scudi per 
month. "*^ It is probable that as a result of this commission 
we have that fine manuscript atlas of thirteen maps now 
belonging to the Biblioteca Nationale of Naples, represent- 
ing the provinces of the kingdom and signed "M. Cartaro 
F. 1613."" This manuscript gives striking evidence of his 
cartographical ability. The manuscript is of paper, its first 
map representing the ancient kingdom of Naples, on which 

[ 167 ] 



Terrestrial and Celestial Globes. 

is placed the Spanish coat of arms. The remaining twelve 
represent the following named provinces : Terra di Lavorro, 
Principato Citra, Principato Ultra, Basilicata, Calabria 
Citra, Calabria Ultra, Terra d'Otranto, Terra di Bari, Capi- 
tanata, Contado di Molise, Abruzzo Citra, Abruzzo Ultra. 

Cartaro's globes are of solid wood about 16 cm. in diam- 
eter, the balls being covered with engraved gore maps. On 
his celestial globes appears the inscription, "Marius Cartarus 
Viterbensis Autor incidebat Romae cil priv. 1577." The 
twelve or rather twenty-four half gores, since they are cut on 
the line of the ecliptic, are copper engraved. The equator, 
the tropics, the polar circles, and the colures are represented, 
the ecliptic and the equator being graduated, the degrees be- 
ing alternately colored red and yellow. The several constella- 
tions are well drawn, are colored yellow with shading, and 
stand out prominently against a blue background represent- 
ing the sky. His terrestrial globes bear the inscription 
"Marius Cartarus Viterbensis Autor incidebat Romae MD- 
LXXVII cum privilegio," the gores being divided, as in the 
preceding, into twenty-four. Meridians and parallels are 
drawn at intervals of fifteen degrees, alternate degrees being 
colored red and yellow, the prime meridian passing through 
the Canary Islands and being graduated. In the Osservatorio 
del Collegio Romano may be found two copies of the celes- 
tial and one example of the terrestrial globe, one of the 
former once belonging to the astronomer, Virgilio Spada, and 
later to the Biblioteca Vallicelliana. Neither of these globes 
is well preserved, the original mountings are wanting, and 
each rests on a base of wood which has been merely designed 
to serve as a support. 

A copy of the celestial globe may be found in the Museo 
di Strumenti Antichi of Florence, which was presented to 
the museum by the Grand Duke Leopold I. This example is 
reported to be in good condition, being mounted on a base of 
wood, and having a horizon and a meridian circle of wood, 
both of which are graduated. On the horizon appear the 

[ 168 ] 








Fig. 69. Terrestrial Globe of Mario Cartaro, 1577. 



Third Quarter of the Sixteenth Century. 

names of the eight principal winds, with representations of 
the wind heads having distended cheeks. 

A fairly well-preserved example of the terrestrial globe 
(Fig. 69) was recently purchased by Mr. Reed of New York 
City, by whose courteous permission it was photographed for 
reproduction in this work. It has a single pedestal base which 
is gilded, is furnished with horizon and meridian circles, the 
former being supported by two semicircles, which in turn 
rest on the pedestal base. Practically all of the inscriptions 
are in capitals, and all of the work of the engraver has 
been very artistically done. The outline of the New World 
resembles closely that given by Mercator and by Zaltiari. 
In North America we find interestingly represented a great 
lake drained by two rivers, apparently, but not accurately 
drawn as the Mississippi and the St. Lawrence. The south- 
western part is called "Nova Spagna," Mexico is designated 
as "Nova Galitia"; in the northeast we find "La Nova 
Franza," and "Terra de Noriibeca," and in the southeast 
"Florida," although the peninsula is not well drawn. South 
America bears the name "America," so drawn as practically 
to cover the continent, and in addition we find "Castiglia de 
Loro," "Para," "Peru Provin," "Chili," and lake "Tichia," 
located well inland. It will be noted in the reproduction that 
the sphere is well shot through by the industrious book- or 
woodworm. 



NOTES 

1. See his catalogue No. XLII, item 133; also catalogue No. L, Item 327. 
Nordenskiold. Facsimile Atlas. Plate XL reproduces the terrestrial globe 
gores. 

2. Marcel, G. Frangols De Mongenet, geographe franc-comtois. (In: Bul- 
letin de geographle, historique et descriptive. Paris, 1889. pp. 31-40.) ; 
Giinther, S. Die mathematlschen Sammlung des Gesmanischen Museums zu 
Niirnberg. (In: Leopoldina, Heft 14, p. 110.) 

3. See above, p. 129. 

[ 169 ] 



Terrestrial and Celestial Globes. 

4. Vasari, op. cit., Vol. Ill, pp. 500, 512, 514. 

5. Ruscelli, G. La geografia di Claudio Tolomeo Alessandrlno monumente 
tradotta di greco in italiano. Venezia, 1561. p. 32. 

6. See above, p. 122. 

7. Joppi, V. Pittori e scultori. Venezia, 1881. p. 86. 

8. Fiorini, M. Le projezioni delle carte geografiche. Bologna, 1881. Chap, 
vi, §5; same author. Le projezioni cordiformi nella Cartografia. (In: Bol- 
letino della Societa Geogr^fica Italiana. Roma, 1889. pp. 554-579.) 

9. Joppi, op. cit., pp. 71 ff. 

10. The title-page reads, Delia grandezza della terra et dell' acqua. 
Trattato di M. Alessandro Piccolomini, nuovamente mandato in luce all' 
Illustr. et Rev. S. Monsig. M. Jacomo Cocco Arcivescovo di Corfu. Con 
privilegio. In Venetia MDLVIII. 

11. Cardella. Memorie storiche dei Cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. 
Roma, 1792. Tom. IV, p. 233. 

12. Cardella, op. cit., Tom. IV, p. 173. 

13. Cardella, op. cit., Tom. IV, p. 287. 

14. Ruscelli, op. cit. See that section appearing as a second part or appen- 
dix to this work titled "Espositioni et introductioni." Chap. ii. 

15. Sanuto. Geografia di Livio Sanuto distinta in XII libri. Vinezia, 1588. 

16. Ruscelli. Espositioni. Chap. iii. 

17. Ruscelli. Geografia. pp. 58, 59. 

18. Vasari, op. cit.. Vol. II, p. 65. 

19. Fiorini. Sfere terrestri e celesti. p. 218. 

20. Inventario del Reale Gabinetto redatto nel 1776, Vol. II, n. 175. 

21. Doppelmayr, op. cit., p. 75; Gerland, E. Beitrage zur Geschichte der 
Physik. (In: Leopoldina, Heft 18, p. 69.); Weidler, J. F. Historia astro- 
nomiae. Vitembergae, 1741. p. 390; Drechsler, A. Katalog der Sammlung 
des Konigl.-Mathematisch-Physikalischen Salon zu Dresden. Dresden, 1874. 

P- 53- 

22. Doppelmayr, op. cit., pp. 83-90. 

23. Drechsler, op. cit., pp. 53, 54; Gerland, op. cit., p. 68. 

24. Del Badia, J. Egnazio Danti cosmografo e matematico. Firenze, 1882 ; 
Marchese, R. Memorie dei piu illustri pittori, scultori ed architetti Domi- 
nicani. Bologna, 1879. Vol. II, p. 357 ; Porena, F. La Geografia in Roma 
e il mappamondo Vaticano. (In : Boll, della Societa Geografica Italiana. 
Roma, 1888. pp. 221 ff.) 

25. Uzielli, G. L'epistolario Colombo-Toscanelliano e di Danti. (In: 
Boll, della Societa Geografica Italiana. Roma, 1889. p. 836.) In this the 
author refers to the numerous editions of Sacrobosco translated by Rinaldi. 

26. Vasari, op. cit.. Vol. V, pp. 493-496. 

27. Del Badia, op. cit., p. 30. 

28. Del Badia, op. cit., p. 28. 

29. Del Badia, op. cit., p. 31. 

30. Fiorini. Sfere terrestri e celesti. p. 179. 

31. Tiraboschi, G. Storia della litteratura italiana. Roma, 1873. Tom. 
VII, pt. I, lib. ii, p. 439. 

32. Hues, R. Tractatus de globis coelesti et terrestri eorumque usu. 
Amstelodame, 1617. Ed. by Joannis Isaci Pontanus. See the Preface. 

33. Moriggia, R. P. F. La nobilita di Milano. Milano, 1595. Lib. V, cap. 
xvii. 

34. Fiorini. Sfere terrestri e celesti. p. 184; Kretschmer, K. Die Entdeckung 

[ 170 ] 



Third Quarter of the Sixteenth Century. 

Amerikas in ihrer Bedeutung fiir die Geschichte des Weltbildes. Berlin, 
1892. p. 436, and Tav. xxix. 

35. Nordenskiold. Facsimile Atlas, plate XLI. 

36. Fiorini. Sfere terrestri e celesti. p. 220. 

37. Fiorini. Sfere terrestri e celesti. p. 284. 

38. The word "Jobel" is thought to mean jubilee. 

39. Fiorini. Sfere terrestri e celesti. pp. 497-500. 

40. See above, n. 5, 14. 

41. His work bears the title D. Francisci Maurolyci Abbatis Messanensis 
Opuscula mathematica nunc primum in lucem edita. Venetiis, 1575. 

42. Gori-Gandellini, G. Notizie storiche degli intagliatori. Siena, 1771. 
Tom. I, p. 25. 

43. Archivo Storico della Provincie Napoletane. Anno primo Napoli. 
1876. p. 405. 

44. Fiorini. Sfere terrestri e celesti. p. 191. See for catalogue reference 
Sala dei MSS. ScafFale XII, palchetto D, n. 100. 




[ 171 ] 



Chapter IX 

Globes and Globe Makers of the Last 
Quarter of the Sixteenth Century 

Brief summary of sixteenth-century globe making. — The close of 
the century introducing us to the great Dutch globe makers. — 
The clock maker Dasypodius. — Peter and Philip Apianus. — The 
armillary sphere of Carlus Platus. — Roll and Reinhold. — Tycho 
Brahe and his influence. — Titon du Tillet. — The terrestrial globe 
of Rouen. — Globes of Emery Molyneux. — Globes of Biirgi. — 
Zurich globe. — Beaker globes. — Ivory globe of Antonio Spano. — 
The Van Langren globes. — Santucci. — B. F. globe of Dresden. 

IN the last three chapters attention has been called to the 
globes and globe makers of the earlier years of the six- 
teenth century, special mention having been made in 
Chapters VI and VII of the notions entertained concerning 
the geography of the New World as exhibited in the terres- 
trial globe maps. In the first quarter of the century, as was 
stated, the newly discovered lands were represented as hav- 
ing no geographical connection with the Old World, and 
with few exceptions the two continents of the western hemi- 
sphere were separated from each other either by a strait or 
by a wide expanse of ocean. In the second quarter of the 
century the belief seemed to have found very general accep- 
tance that the New World was but a prolongation or east- 
ward extension of the Asiatic continent, a belief which found 
expression in the plane as well as in the globe maps. Ex- 
ceptions to such belief were likewise noted, as was also the 
inclination manifesting itself in this second quarter to return 

[ 172 1 



Last Quarter of the Sixteenth Century. 

to the earher notions, that a great body of water separated 
Asia from the northern continent, in the spread of which 
notion Mercator seems to have exerted a dominating influ- 
ence. In the third quarter of the century the globe maps indi- 
cate that a belief in the independent position of the New 
World had again found very general acceptance, although 
there appeared now and then an expression in the maps that 
the theory of an Asiatic connection still lingered. In this 
third quarter it was the Italian globe makers who were the 
most active, yet it must be admitted that the majority of 
the globes produced in these years in the peninsula were not 
of striking importance. In the literature of the period, refer- 
ences to globes which were constructed, and which appear 
to have been well known, are not infrequent, but one is 
inclined to a belief, based upon these references, and upon 
those globes which are extant, that time has destroyed the 
best of them. 

The records of the last quarter of the century, of which 
we come now to speak in this chapter, seem to show a decline 
of interest in globe making among the Italians, the exam- 
ples of their work left to us being exceedingly few. We note 
a rising interest and activity in globe making in the North 
in this period, which reaches a climax during the early years 
of the seventeenth century in the splendid work given out 
by the great masters of the Netherlands. A well-merited 
fame especially crowns the labors of members of the Van 
Langren, the Blaeu, and the Hondius families.^ 

Although remembered chiefly for his part in the con- 
struction of the famous Strassburg cathedral clock, Conrad 
Dasypodius (15301600) can also claim a place among the 
globe makers of his day, that is, of the period we now have 
under consideration.^ He was the son of Petrus Dasypodius, 
a native of Frauenfeld in Switzerland, whose name origi- 
nally was Rauhfuss or Hasenfuss, and who for some years 
held a position as professor of the Greek language in Zurich. 
In the year 1530 he removed to Strassburg to accept a similar 

I 173 ] 



Terrestrial and Celestial Globes. 

position in the Strassburg Academy, where he died in the 
year 1 559. Young Conrad, after an association for a period 
with the then famous Strassburg mathematician. Christian 
Herlin,^ as his favorite pupil, traveled extensively, going to 
Paris and later to Lyons, where he continued his mathemati- 
cal studies. In October, 1562, he became the successor of 
Herlin, and in the year 1563 canon of St. Thomas. To the 
impulse which he contributed to mathematical studies is 
due the high place held for a considerable period by the 
Strassburg Academy.* It is a part of his great service that 
he not only encouraged the study of the Greek mathemati- 
cians, but he also was especially interested in having their 
works brought to the attention of the public through their 
reissue, especially the works of Euclid. The list of Dasypo- 
dius' publications^ is a long one and is such as to place him 
among the foremost scholars of his day, but it was, however, 
his astronomical clock, noted above, which brought him spe- 
cial renown in the larger circles. It was near the middle of 
the fourteenth century that the first clock, which was of 
wood, was constructed for the cathedral, but time had 
wrought its destructive work, and as early as 1547 a com- 
mission was appointed to consider the question of its res- 
toration, and of this commission Christian Herlin was a 
prominent member. His death in the year 1562 left the plan 
incomplete, and eight years passed before his pupil, Dasypo- 
dius, was successful in urging the magistrates of the city to 
take up the work anew. In the year 1 570, through his advice, 
two young globe makers of Schaffhausen, Isaac and Josias 
Habrecht,*' who had given aid to their father in the construc- 
tion of the "Frohnwaagthurm Uhr" of the last-named city, 
together with the Schaffhausen artists, Tobias and Josias 
Stimmer,^ were invited to take up the work under his super- 
vision. At the end of three years the clock was completed 
and soon came to be referred to as one of the seven wonders 
of Germany. "Truly a masterpiece," said Montucla, "and 
the first of its kind in all Europe by reason of the numerous 

[ 174 ] 




Fig. 70. Strassburg Clock and Globe of Conrad Dasypodius, 1574. 



Last Quarter of the Sixteenth Century. 

movements which it executes."^ In the year 1580 a descrip- 
tion of the same was prepared and published by Dasypodius 
himself.^ Although calling for frequent repairs the clock 
continued running until the year 1789, when it ceased, and 
after fifty years had passed the old mechanism was replaced 
by new, the work of Schwilgue." Remarkable as is the entire 
masterpiece, it is the globes with which Dasypodius fur- 
nished it that especially interest us here. At the base of the 
clock is placed a celestial sphere (Fig. 70) three feet in 
diameter, supported by four columns of wood richly carved. 
On the surface appear the forty-eight Ptolemaic constella- 
tions, each constellation having its appropriate figure, and 
the 1022 stars which had been located in Ptolemy's day. The 
globe is so connected with the machinery, by which the 
various parts of the clock are made to perform their func- 
tions, that it makes one revolution on its axis every twenty- 
four hours, thus representing the rising and the setting of the 
several celestial bodies. Two circles were added, one carrying 
the sun and the other the moon, adjusted so as to turn about 
the globe, the first in twenty-four hours, and the second in 
about twenty-five. The arrangement of the movements, it 
appears, was not greatly altered in the reconstruction of 
1838-1842, and the clock, as it now stands, is thus described 
by Britten: "On the fioor level is a celestial globe indicating 
siderial time. In its motion round its axis the globe carries 
with it the circles that surround it — namely, the equator, the 
ecliptic, the solstitial and equinoctial colures, while the me- 
ridian and horizon circles remain motionless, so that there 
are shown the rising and the setting, as well as the passage 
over the meridian of Strassburg, of all stars that are visible 
to the naked eye, and which appear above the horizon. Be- 
hind the celestial globe is the calendar; on a metallic band, 
nine inches wide and thirty feet in circumference, are the 
months and the days of the months, Dominical letters, fixed 
and movable feast days. The band is shifted at midnight, 
and a statue of Apollo points out the day of the month and 

[ 175 ] 



Terrestrial and Celestial Globes. 

the name of the saint corresponding to that day. The inter- 
nal part of the annular band indicates true solar time, the 
rising and the setting of the sun, the diurnal motion of the 
moon around the earth, and its passage over the meridian, 
the phases of the moon and the eclipses of the sun and 
moon. Adjacent compartments are devoted to a perpetual 
calendar, solar and lunar cycles and other periodic occur- 
rences, solar and lunar equations, etc. Above the calendar 
appear allegorical figures, seated in chariots, and represent- 
ing the days of the week. These chariots, drawn by such 
animals as are assigned as attributes of the divinities, run 
on a circular railway and appear each in order. In the story- 
above the globe is a planetarium in which the revolutions 
of the planets are represented upon a large dial plate, and 
above the planetarium, and upon a star-decked sky, is a 
globe devoted to showing the phases of the moon. In the 
second story of the clock has been placed a terrestrial globe, 
which likewise is adjusted to revolve in representation of 
the revolution of the earth."" 

Peter Apianus (BienewitzorBennewitz) (1495-1552) was 
a native of Leisnig, Saxony.^^ His earliest education was 
received in the village of Roschlitz, but at the age of twenty- 
three he entered the University of Leipzig, where it appears 
that astronomy and mathematics chiefly claimed his interest 
(Fig. 71 ). In 1527 he received and accepted an appointment 
as professor of mathematics in the University of Ingolstadt, 
and in 1541, for his distinguished abilities, he was ennobled 
by the Emperor Charles V. In addition to the fame acquired 
through his mathematical treatises he became widely known 
as a maker of physical and astronomical instruments, among 
which were celestial globes. Numerous as appear to have 
been these globes of his construction, no example at present 
is known bearing the unmistakable evidence of his workman- 
ship. Clemens, in his description of the Library of the 
Escorial,^^ gives us to understand that it possessed at one 
time one or more Peter Apianus globes, which were probably 

[ 176 ] 




Fig. 71. Portrait of Peter Apianus. 



Last Quarter of the Sixteenth Century. 

carried to Spain by the Emperor himself. It seems probable 
that a diligent search through public and private libraries 
and museums in that country would lead to the discovery of 
some of his globes or mathematical instruments. 

Kepler tells us of an Apianus globe which he saw on a 
journey from Wiirtemberg to Gratz, noting that it was so 
constructed that the stars could be removed at pleasure from 
the sphere." Of this particular globe nothing seems now 
to be known. It is thought hardly probable that the one 
referred to by Kepler is that fine celestial Apianus globe 
(Fig. 72) belonging to the K. B. Hof- u. Staats Bibliothek of 
Munich. There seems to be scarcely a doubt that this, as its 
companion, a terrestrial globe, is the work of the son Philip. 
Repeated inquiry has not resulted in obtaining definite 
answer as to the dimensions of these globes nor a description 
of such detailed features as would here prove of interest. 
The photographic reproductions show them to be of remark- 
ably artistic workmanship. Each is furnished with a heavy 
meridian circle, and with a similarly designed horizon circle 
supported by a semicircle which rests upon an elaborately 
constructed base." The history of these globes seems not to 
be known, as stated above. We have an inventory of the 
Herzoglich-Bayrische collection of mathematical and astro- 
nomical instruments, prepared by the Jesuit, Fickler, which 
contains, page 147, the following entry relative to the globes 
to be found therein : 'Tolget die Tafi. Nr. 34. Daraus stehen 
drey grosser hulzinen Globi Coelestes, davon d. ain in einem 
messingen gestell, mit ainem messingem zodiaco, der dritt 
von mettall. 1777. Sechs grosser Globi terrestres von Holz. 
mit mettallinen zodiacis 1778. Zwei claine Globi der ain 
Coelestis der ander Terrestris, auf gedraxelten holzen 
fuesslen."^^ "Next in order is table No. 34. On this there 
stand three large celestial globes of wood, one of which has 
a base of brass, with a brass horizon circle, the third of 
metal, 1777. There are six large terrestrial globes of wood, 
with metal horizon circles, 1778. Two small globes, one 

[ 177 ] 



Terrestrial and Celestial Globes. 

celestial, the other terrestrial, resting on turned wooden 
feet." It will be noted, however, that there is no mention 
therein of Apianus globes. Kobalt tells us that Apianus 
"vertigte allerley mathematische instrumente, als Cosmola- 
bium, Globos duos Caeli et Terrae maximos, und Plani- 
sphaerium," "constructed many kinds of mathematical instru- 
ments such as astrolabes, two large globes celestial and 
terrestrial and planispheres." This same author gives us the 
information that "in der k. b. Central-Bibliothek befinden 
sich zwei grosse, von Apian ververtigte und von Johann 
Mielichs gemalte Globi Coelestes et Terrestres, worauf 
folgende Inschrift zo lesen ist, 'Illustrss Seren. Principi ac 
Domino D. Alberto Com. Pal. Rheni. Sub. Inf. que Bar. 
Duci Domino suo Clementissimo Globum hunc geographi- 
cum eels, ejus jussu juxta veterum ac recentium Historio- 
graphorum Observationes Traditionesque Descr. et Ded. 
Philippus Apianus M. D. Anno Salutis 1576.' " "In the 
K. B. Central Library there are two large globes celestial 
and terrestrial constructed by Apianus and painted by 
Johan Miielichs, on which is the following inscription: 
To the Most Illustrious, Most Serene Prince and Lord D. 
Albert Count of the Rhenish Palatinate, etc. His Most 
Clement Lord this celestial globe by his command, fash- 
ioned according to the observations and traditions of both 
ancient and modern historiographers dedicates Philip 
Apianus in the year of Salvation 1576.' "^^ It seems, there- 
fore, probable, from the above citation, that it was the son 
Philip who constructed these Munich globes. It was in the 
year 1552 that he followed his father as professor of mathe- 
matics in the University of Ingolstadt and like his father 
soon won distinction for himself as cartographer, producing 
his famous Bayrische Landtafeln as his first work of note. 
It seems further probable that shortly after this work he 
became interested in globe construction, in which line of 
activity he made for himself a place of first rank. 

The celestial globe referred to above has represented on 

[ 178 ] 




Fig. 72. Globes of Philip Apianus, 1576. 



Last Quarter of the Sixteenth Century. 

its surface the several Ptolemaic constellations, exquisitely 
colored, and the stars have been given names in Greek, 
Latin, and Arabic. The terrestrial globe map is considerably 
injured, especially in the polar regions, but the continental 
and other outlines are all clearly traceable. Three large com- 
pass roses, of ornamental pattern, are placed along the Line 
of Demarcation. The coast outline of Europe is, in the main, 
well done, as is that of Africa and the New World. The 
Nile and the Niger rivers no longer find their source in the 
same common lake. The representations of the far eastern 
regions indicate that Apianus had a fairly good knowledge 
of the records of the Holland explorers. 

A fine example of the metal worker's art of this period 
may be found in a silvered bronze celestial globe (Fig. 73) 
belonging to the Morgan collection recently placed in the 
Metropolitan Museum of New York. On the meridian circle 
we find the maker and date legend reading "Gerhard 
Emmoser, sac. caes. meis horologiarius, F. Viennae 1579." 
The sphere, which can be opened on the line of the eclip- 
tic, has a diameter of about 13 cm. Within has been 
placed a delicately constructed mechanism by means of 
which the sphere is made to rotate once in twenty-four 
hours on its equatorial axis, the key winding stem for this 
machinery projecting at the north pole through an engraved 
hour plate with pointer. With its meridian and its horizon 
circle it is adjusted to make one revolution in three hun- 
dred and sixty-five days. A stationary ring, about 2 cm. in 
width, which closely surrounds the horizon circle and in its 
same plane, fits the instrument as a calendar. This ring has 
engraved on its surface crossing lines, one for each day of the 
year, to each month there being assigned its proper number 
of days or lines, as, for example, "October habet 31 dies," 
"November habet 30 dies." As the sphere with its circles 
revolves, a pointer attached to the horizon circle indi- 
cates on the calendar ring each day of each month in 
succession. The surface of the sphere is exquisitely en- 

[ 179 ] 



Terrestrial and Celestial Globes. 

graved with representations of the several constellations, 
the name of each being given in Latin. The instru- 
ment is made to rest upon the back of a winged horse 
in silvered bronze, this in turn standing upon an artistic 
circle base. It is well preserved and is a choice example of 
such instruments, which in this period were in particular 
favor. 

Carlus Flatus, a maker of metal globes in the last quar- 
ter of the sixteenth century, is known to us through two fine 
extant examples of his work.^® The first of these, inscribed 
"Romae a. 1578 Car. PL," may be found in the Museo di 
Strumenti Antichi of Florence, having been added to this 
collection by its former distinguished director, F. Meucci. 
The horizon diameter of this armillary sphere is about 21 
cm. It has been described as one beautifully constructed of 
brass and mounted on a carved wooden base. The circle 
representing the course of the sun and that made to represent 
the course of the moon are made to revolve on the axis of 
the ecliptic, and a small ball, of recent construction, repre- 
senting the earth, is placed in the common center of the 
armillae, and is made to revolve on the axis of the equator. 
A dial attached to the axis of the earth below the meridian 
circle marks the hours, which are engraved on the Arctic 
polar circle, A few points marked on the colures indicate the 
position of the principal stars. All of the circles have been 
carefully graduated. On that one representing the zodiac 
have been engraved the names of the months and the pictures 
of the several zodiacal figures, while on the horizon circle 
are the names of the principal winds in Greek, Latin, and 
Italian. 

A second globe of Platus, signed "Carolus Flatus Romae 
Anno 1598," may be found in the Biblioteca Barbarini of 
Rome, It is composed of two hollow brass hemispheres, 
making a ball 14 cm, in diameter, which is surrounded by 
a brass meridian and a brass horizon circle, the whole rest- 
ing on a tripod base. It is a fine example of an early metal 

[ 180 ] 




Fig. 73. Silver-Gilt Globe of Gerhard Emmoser, 1573. 



Last Quarter of the Sixteenth Century. 

engraved globe, the representation of the figures of the con- 
stellations in particular being done in a very superior man- 
ner. On the surface of the sphere the equator, the ecliptic, 
the equinoctial, and the solstitial colures are represented. 
The history of the globe seems not to be known, but it is 
probable that it came to the Barbarini Palace in the time of 
Pope Urban VIII, who, before filling his pontifical ofRce, 
was known as Maffeo Barbarini. 

Of the celestial globes constructed by George Roll and 
Joannes Reinhold three examples are known.^** One of these 
may be found in the collection of the Mathematical Salon of 
Dresden (Fig. 74) one in the OsservatoriodiCapodimonteof 
Naples and one in the K. K. Hofbibliothek in Vienna. The 
Roll and Reinhold globe of the Dresden collection, bearing 
the inscription "Georg Roll et Joannes Reinhold elaborabant 
Augustae 1586," is an exceedingly interesting instrument, 
unique in the manner of its construction and remarkably 
well preserved. It is of brass, having a diameter of 36 cm., 
and is furnished with numerous movable circles, a large 
meridian circle surmounted with an armillary sphere, and a 
brass horizon circle on which are marked the old and the new 
calendars, the names of the twelve months and of the impor- 
tant holy days. The globe base, very artistically wrought, 
rests upon four griffin's feet, between which a small terres- 
trial globe 10 cm. in diameter has been placed, this having 
been furnished with its own independent support. The large 
celestial sphere is furnished with a clocklike mechanism by 
means of which it is made to revolve in representation of 
the diurnal motion of the heavens. According to existing 
records it was purchased in the year 1593 by order of the 
Elector Christian II, and by him was presented to the Acad- 
emy of Arts of Dresden. Zeiller tells us that this and the 
Heyden globe were those "with which the Prince Elector 
Augustus was accustomed to amuse himself." 

It has not been possible to obtain a description of the 
Vienna globe. It appears that it was constructed in the year 

[ 181 ] 



Terrestrial and Celestial Globes. 

1588, and that, like the Dresden example, the celestial 
sphere is made to revolve by means of clockwork. 

The Roll and Reinhold globe belonging to the Osserva- 
torio di Capodimonte, according to Fiorini, is one especially 
worthy of mention.'^ This is described as a hollow ball 
having a diameter of about 21 cm. The sphere itself is made 
of copper, the remaining parts of gilded brass. The horizon 
circle is composed of several overlapping brass plates. A 
clockwork mechanism is supplied, by means of which the 
sphere and certain circles may be made to revolve. The sur- 
face of the copper sphere is artistically engraved, having 
numerous circles representing the ecliptic system with its 
parallels and meridians, and the equatorial system including 
its five zones. The Ptolemaic constellations are represented, 
the figure of each being engraved in outline with the name 
in Latin. The several stars are not named but near each is 
an engraved number to indicate its magnitude, these num- 
bers ranging from 1 to 6. Nebulae are distinguished by small 
circles, and the Milky Way by numerous dots. The meridian 
circle, in which the sphere revolves, has the usual graduation 
from o to 90, but has in addition a climatic graduation 
designed "Climata ex Ptolomeo," and a division into zones 
called 'Torrida Zona," "Zona habitabilis temperata," and 
"Frigida zona." On the convex surface of the horizon circle 
we find engraved the names of the four cardinal points, and 
on the upper surface of this circle are engraved the Julian 
and the Gregorian calendars, the names of the saints, the 
dates on which the sun enters the various signs of the zodiac, 
and the ancient names of the principal winds. The globe 
mountings, all of brass, are artistic and well preserved. 
Like the Dresden example it rests upon a four-branched 
support, the extremities of each branch representing the 
claws of the griffin. Including the base, the instrument is 
43 cm. in height. It seems not to be known when or how this 
globe, constructed in Augsburg, found its way to the Naples 

[ 182 1 




Fig. 74. Globe of George Roll and Johannes Reinhold, 1586. 



Last Quarter of the Sixteenth Century. 

Museum, where it is treasured as one of the choicest of 
ancient astronomical instruments. 

Tycho Brahe, the great Danish astronomer (Fig. 75), 
was a native of Knudtstrup near Helsingborg, born in the 
year 1546."^ The care of his early education was assumed 
by an uncle, George Brahe, who in the year 1559 sent him 
to the Academy of Copenhagen with the intention of fitting 
him for the legal profession. Three years later we find him 
registered at the University of Leipzig, then famous for its 
department of jurisprudence. Like many another of the 
world's great men for whom, in the days of his youth, 
interested relatives or friends have chosen a life career only 
to find in later life the choice not well made, Tycho's bent 
was not for the legal profession but for science, that is, for 
mathematics and astronomy. While yet a student in Copen- 
hagen an eclipse of the sun which occurred August 21,1 560, 
interested him greatly, and here we seem to find the begin- 
ning of that great future which was to be his. Forbidden by 
his schoolmaster to give his time to a study of the stars, in 
the quiet of the night he would secretly betake himself into 
the open, there to watch with unaided eye the movements 
of the heavenly bodies, or to follow these movements as 
best he could with the assistance of a simple astronomical 
circle and a small celestial globe which he had been able 
to purchase. It probably was in his Leipzig days that he be- 
came intimate with Bartholomaus Scultetus (Schultz), lec- 
turer on mathematical subjects, and by him was encouraged 
to pursue further his astronomical studies. Among the first 
practical results of his activities in this field we have his 
correction table for readings with the Jacob staff. The death 
of his uncle in the year 1565 occasioned his return to his 
native country, but Germany offering him special oppor- 
tunities for continued study in his favorite field, we soon 
find him in Wittenberg, later in Rostock, where in a quarrel 
with a peasant he lost part of his nose and thereafter to the 
end of his days wore a silver substitute. In 1567 we find him 

[ 183 ] 



Terrestrial and Celestial Globes. 

in Lauingen engaged in the study of astronomy with the 
distinguished Cyprian Leowitz, in 1568 in Basel with Peter 
Ramus, and for two years thereafter in Augsburg with the 
brothers Johan and Paul Hainzel, with whom he constructed 
a large quadrant having a radius of seventeen and one half 
feet. While in Augsburg it appears that he began the con- 
struction of a celestial globe four feet in diameter, but there 
is some uncertainty as to his completion of this work. A 
short but unhappy sojourn in his native town followed his 
years of congenial study in Germany, and we soon learn of 
his visit to the observatory of Landgraf Wilhelm of Cassel, 
an event of great significance for him. His travels carried 
him to other cities of Germany, including the city of Regens- 
burg, where he witnessed the coronation of the Emperor 
Rudolf II. Landgraf Wilhelm, a Maecenas of wide repute in 
his day, had been greatly impressed with the abilities of 
Tycho, and he urged upon the Danish King Frederick that 
he should make suitable provision for the further astronomi- 
cal studies of his distinguished subject, which suggestion the 
King generously met. In the year 1575 the documents were 
signed and sealed granting to Tycho full possession for life 
of the little Island of Hveen, lying between Seeland and 
Schonen; in addition he was furnished with all the means 
necessary for the erection of an observatory and the adequate 
equipment of the same (Fig. 76). The Uranienburg, as his 
observatory was called," became a great center for astronom- 
ical studies, and students came to him from various Euro- 
pean lands, among these being Arnold van Langren, Willem 
Jansz. Blaeu, and Longomontanus (Christian Severin of 
Longberg). The death of his patron. King Frederick II, in 
the year 1588 brought misfortune to Tycho, in so far as his 
life and studies on the Island of Hveen were concerned, since 
the succeeding ruler. Christian IV, was but little interested 
in the further promotion of astronomical science. Enduring 
court intrigue for nine years, he determined, in the year 
1597, to leave the scenes of his remarkable successes, and 

[ 184 ] 




" im. 



TYcao E:iiAi[E 



lyfc! -t^ .>ifaZ<-ri , sov:- yjtjif- -juut Fri-.tlcri'tuthoTti 



Fig. 75. Portrait of Tycho Brahe. 



Last Quarter of the Sixteenth Century. 

after a brief sojourn with Count Henry of Ranzau near 
Hamburg, he accepted an invitation from the Emperor 
Rudolf II to become imperial astronomer and counselor at 
Prague. Thither he went with his family in the year 1599, at 
the same time taking with him those astronomical instru- 
ments which had served him in his studies in the northern 
island home. While preparations were under way for the 
erection of a new observatory for him he died in the year 
1601. From Tycho's heirs the Emperor Rudolf purchased his 
instruments and manuscripts, the latter passing into the 
hands of Kepler, his successor at the Imperial Court, but as 
to the fate of his instruments little seems to be known. 
Kastner tells us that in 1619, during an uprising in the city 
of Prague, some of these were destroyed while others were 
carried away, and at present only an iron quadrant, once in 
his observatory, remains in that city. 

His large brass celestial globe, six feet in diameter, was 
carried back to Copenhagen in the year 1623 by King Chris- 
tian's son, Ulrich, and there it was carefully kept until the 
year 1728, when with the castle in which it had been placed 
it was destroyed by fire. 

Recalling the far-reaching influence of Tycho Brahe on 
astronomical studies and on celestial globe making, it can- 
not be without interest to quote here his own reference to 
his great globe, wherein he describes its construction. 

"This globe," he says," "which is a very large one, 
we have made with great care, but with none the less than 
we have employed in all of our others. The interior is of 
wood with many intersecting circles and special supports, 
strengthened here and there from the center, and being then 
fashioned into a spherical shape. As for its parts of wood, 
these were made at Augsburg in the year 1570 before I re- 
turned to my native land, as I found there a capable work- 
man, having sought for a long time elsewhere in vain for 
such an one. There, on account of its size, which made it 
difficult to move, it had remained for five years, when I 

[ 185 1 



Terrestrial and Celestial Globes. 

returned to Augsburg; this was in the year 1575 as I came 
out of Italy on my way to Ratisbon to be present at the coro- 
nation of the August Emperor Rudolf II, when I found 
the globe had been finished some time previously. But its 
shape (sphericity) did not altogether satisfy me, moreover 
certain cracks could be seen. In the following year, and not 
without much difficulty I had it carried to Denmark. There 
the cracks were filled in and the sphericity made more nearly 
perfect by laying over the surface about one hundred skins. 
There followed a testing for a period of two years to ascer- 
tain whether the cracks would reappear after two summers 
and two winters. When, after this test, I saw that it retained 
its sphericity, I covered it over with thin brass plates of uni- 
form thickness without mishap, and this I did with such care 
and skill that you would be led to say the globe was made 
of solid brass, the joinings of the plates being scarcely visi- 
ble. I next fashioned it into a perfect sphere and marked 
thereon the zodiac, and the equator with its poles, also the 
degrees each of sixty minutes by engraved lines as we do 
in such work. I then left it for the space of one year, as 
there was some doubt after putting on the brass plates as 
to whether the globe would retain its sphericity in winter 
and in summer. When it had been sufficiently tested not only 
did I indicate the circles of which I have spoken but also all 
the stars of the eighth sphere I represented in their proper 
places, as many stars as were to be seen in the heavens, and 
I increased their number more and more in succeeding years 
up to 1600. Thus I with purpose added all the stars visible 
to the naked eye, in their proper places adapted to the year 
1600 which was near at hand. And so there passed nearly 
twenty-five years from the first work on this globe until it 
was finished, by the addition of its proper divisions and its 
stars. This delay, although it might seem tedious, was not 
without its value; for all things were thus done more care- 
fully and better. 'Work quickly only if you work well.' Then 
the outer circles were fitted to it, that is, a meridian and 

[ 186 ] 




Fig. 76. Interior of Tycho Brahe's Observatory at Uranienburg. 



Last Quarter of the Sixteenth Century. 

after that a horizon circle. This meridian is made of brass, 
and each degree is divided into minutes, and the horizon has 
the width of a palm of the hand, being covered with brass 
having the degrees and minutes marked. The vertical quad- 
rant passing from the zenith to the horizon is of brass. 

"The globe rests on a firm base having two iron supports 
crossing each other, two of which you see on one side and 
two on the other. These are for the purpose of giving 
strength lest the horizon of the instrument should not be 
firm because of its bulk and weight. 

"The entire support is five feet high, and on the lower 
part of the structure various mathematical devices are to 
be seen skilfully painted for the sake of ornamentation, and 
with the other features adding beauty to the whole. The 
globe itself is approximately six feet in diameter, and from 
this dimension the size of the meridian, of the horizon and 
of the rest of the instrument can be obtained. 

"Such a globe, so solidly made, so finely wrought, and 
in every part so finely constructed and properly constituted 
never before in any part of the world, so I believe and say 
without the thought of arousing envy, has been completed. 
It is an immense and a magnificent work; so much so that 
many have come from various countries to Denmark that 
they might have a view of it together with my other instru- 
ments, while the Kingdom of Urania and its far-famed 
citadel were standing. 

"Around the horizon circle one could read in letters of gold 
Tn the year of Christ CO ID XXCIV (1584), Frederick II 
reigning in Denmark, this globe like unto a celestial machine, 
in which are fixed the stars of the eighth sphere as set down 
on his globe each exactly in its place, also the wandering 
stars as they appear among these, Tycho Brahe, to all on 
earth who desire to understand this matter, shows the 
heavens by this mechanical device which he perfected for his 
sons, for himself and for posterity.' 

"The date 1584 is inscribed hereon because that is the 

[ 187 ] 



Terrestrial and Celestial Globes. 

middle of the period of time in which it was in the process 
of construction, and further it is the year before the death 
of King Frederick of most worthy memory, who liberally 
supported both myself and my work, and his princely love 
followed me as long as he lived. I will add only this one 
thing — this globe has a canopy indicated by Y Z (Fig. 
77) circular, and concave within to enclose the upper half of 
the globe, which canopy, fastened to the roof by a chain, 
may be let down as a protection from dust and from other 
injury. The use of the globe is the same as is that of others, 
and this use I have decided to describe in a special work 
during my leisure time, since it cannot be done in few words. 
This globe has, on account of its great size, an advantage 
over all others, namely that all details on it can be given 
with the utmost exactness and minuteness. And those points 
concerning the doctrine of the primum mobilum and the 
study of the heavenly bodies in their relations to the position 
of the ecliptic and the equator and of certain other circles 
on the globe, are easily determined with a minimum of 
trouble and without any laborious effort, by the machine.". 

Van Raemdonck refers to a globe by Titon du Tillet, of 
the year 1584, citing a reference to this work to be found 
in "Memoirs lus a la Sorbonne." We have been unable to 
obtain concerning Titon any additional information to that 
given in the above citations.^* 

In March, 1861, the Bibliotheque Nationale of Paris 
acquired by purchase a copper engraved globe mounted on 
a metal base."^ The record referring to the purchase reads 
"Trouve a Lignieres (Cher) et provenant de I'abbe 
L'Ecuy." (Fig. 78.) 

Aside from its geographical interest it is particularly sig- 
nificant in that it is the only globe of metal known to have 
been made in Rouen in that period. It is neither signed nor 
dated, but its inscriptions seem to assure us that it was not 
made prior to 1578, yet in all probability before 1600. It 
seems not to be known how the globe found its way into the 

[ 188 ] 



GLOBVS MAGNVS ORL 



C H A L C 1 C U S. 




Fig. 77. Globus Magnus of Tycho Brahe, 1584. 



Last Quarter of the Sixteenth Century. 

locality designated. The Abbe L'Ecuy died in Paris in the 
year 1634 ^^ the age of eighty-four, Vicar General of the 
Prebendary of Notre Dame. It is probable that at the death 
of the Abbe the globe was taken to the province of Cher by 
some dealer or purchaser, as he was bom in the town Yvoi- 
Carignan in French Luxembourg. Of the earliest history of 
this remarkably interesting object we know only that it was 
made in Rouen, at a date we cannot definitely fix. 

It has a diameter of 25.6 cm. In an oval cartouch one 
finds the inscription "Nova et Integra universi orbis descrip- 
tio. Rothomagi." "A new and complete description of the 
world. Rouen." Below the last line there appears to be space 
left for the insertion of the author's name, a thought sug- 
gested by the arrangement for the inscription, and under- 
neath the cartouch is engraved a representation of Neptune 
driving his sea horses and chariot and armed with a trident. 
There are numerous vessels represented on the globe, sail- 
ing the seas, in the style of the sixteenth century. The prime 
meridian passes through the Canary Islands. The author 
seems to have drawn largely from Spanish sources, but to 
some extent from the Portuguese. 

The outlines of the several countries of the Old World 
are not particularly well drawn, and it does not appear that 
the author thought of making an especial point of accuracy. 
Africa has the outlines of the maps of the sixteenth century, 
but with an indifference to details. The Senegal and the 
Niger are made to unite to form the Nile. Asia is not par- 
ticularly well drawn. Below the island of Cipango the 
author has engraved the following legend, "Hoc loco secuti 
sumus recentiores banc partem verius a continente sepa- 
rantes." "In this place we have followed the most recent 
(observers) who rightly separate this part from the con- 



tinent." 



The western coast of America gives evidence of a want of 
detailed knowledge. Here we read "Haec littora nondum 
cognita," "this coast is not yet known," and below this, 

[ 189 ] 



Terrestrial and Celestial Globes. 

"Novus orbis," and "Hispania major a Nuno Gusmano 
devicta anno 1539," "Greater Spain conquered by Nuno 
Gusman in the year 1539." California is represented as a 
peninsula and not an island as on so many of the maps of 
the closing years of the sixteenth century. The nomenclature 
along the coast of Mexico is exceedingly rich. Pizarro's con- 
quest is referred to, but Chili is unknown, "Ulterius incog- 
nitum." The estuary of La Plata is represented as very large. 
The coast names north of Florida seem to have been ob- 
tained from the Verrazano sources of 1524. In the region 
of Newfoundland, which is represented as a region of 
numerous small islands, we find "Baccalearum regio," 
"Gamas," "insule Corteralis," "terro de laborador." The 
strait separating Greenland from the mainland is referred 
to as "Fretum arcticum per quod Lusitani in orientem et ad 
Indos et Molucas navigare conati sunt," "Arctic strait 
through which the Portuguese attempted to sail to the east 
and to the Indies and the Moluccas," an allusion to the un- 
happy results of the Cortereal expedition. Along the coast 
of the strait which forms the northern boundary of North 
America we read "Terra per Britannos inventa," "Land 
discovered by the British." A very curious legend along the 
east coast of Greenland reads "Quii populi ad quos Joafies 
Scovus Danus pervenit anno 1476," "These are the people 
to whom the Dane John Scovus came in the year 1476." 
Humboldt was one of the first to call attention to this expe- 
dition, and Gomara was actually the first to mention it, that 
is, to give a reference to the Dane Skolnus."** 

There are no more interesting survivals among the globes 
of the late sixteenth century than are those constructed by 
Emery Molyneux, now belonging to the Middle Temple 
Library of London (Fig. 79), which Sir Clements Mark- 
ham refers to as "their burial place," considering this to be 
"a strange depositor}^ for geographical documents of such 
interest and importance," In the address "To the Reader" 
or preface to his 'Voyages,' Hakluyt gives the first reference 

[ 190 1 




Fig. 78. T.'Ecuy Terrestrial Globe, ca. 1578. 



Last Quarter of the Sixteenth Century. 

in print to these globes. "Nowe," he says, "because per- 
aduenture it would bee expected as necessarie, that the de- 
scriptions of so many parts of the world would farre more 
easily be conceiued of the Readers, by adding Geographicall, 
and Hydrographicall tables thereunto, thou art by the way 
to be admonished that I have contented my selfe with 
inserting into the worke one of the best generall mappes of 
the world onely, untill the coming out of a very large and 
most exact terrestriall Globe, collected and reformed accord- 
ing to the newest, secretest, and latest discoueries, both 
Spanish, Portugall, and English, composed by M. Emmerie 
Mollineux of Lambeth, a rare gentleman in his profession, 
being therein for diuers yeeres, gratly supported by the purse 
and liberalitie of the worshipfuU marchant M. William 
Sanderson. "^^ It was not until near the close of the year 
1592 that the globes were completed, and soon thereafter 
we have their first printed description, which description was 
given by Dr. Hood of Trinity College, Cambridge, a lecturer 
on mathematics and navigation in the city of London.^® 
Blundeville, in his 'Exercises,'"'' refers to them, and in 1594 
Robert Hues published the first edition of his most valuable 
and interesting treatise on globes, bearing the title, 'Trac- 
tatus de Globis et eorum usu, accomodatus iis qui Londini 
editi sunt anno 1593,' taking the Molyneux globes as the 
basis for his observations. 

Very little is known of the life of Molyneux. He appears 
to have been a member of the Cavendish expedition of the 
years 1586-1588, as is suggested by one of the legends on 
his terrestrial globe. He was known to Sir Walter Raleigh, 
to Richard Hakluyt, to Edward Wright, and to John Davis. 
To the suggestions of the last-named we perhaps owe the 
existence of these globes.^" As noted by Hakluyt in his 
preface, the globes were constructed at the expense of Wil- 
liam Sanderson, a merchant prince of London, a liberal and 
patriotic citizen, one interested in geographical exploration, 
who had fitted out the Davis Arctic Expedition. 

[ 191 ] 



Terrestrial and Celestial Globes. 

Sir Clements Markham, in his edition of Robert Hues' 
'Tractatus de Globis,'^^ edited for the Hakluyt Society and 
published in the year 1889, gives in his introduction the 
following brief but adequate description of these globes: 
"The Molyneux globes are 2 feet 2 inches in diameter, and 
are fixed on stands. They have graduated brass meridians, 
and on that of the terrestrial globe a dial circle or 'Hora- 
rius' is fixed. The broad wooden equator, forming the upper 
part of the stand, is painted with the zodiac signs, the 
months, the Roman calendar, the points of the compass, and 
the same in Latin, in concentric circles. Rhumb lines are 
drawn from numerous centers over the surface of the terres- 
trial globe. The equator, the ecliptic, the polar circles are 
painted boldly; while the parallels of latitude and merid- 
ians, at every ten degrees, are very faint lines. The globe 
received additions, including the discoveries of Barents in 
Novaya Zemlya, and the date has been altered with a pen 
from 1592 to 1603. The constellations and fixed stars on 
the celestial globe are the same as those on the globe of 
Mercator, except that the Southern Cross has been added. 
On both the celestial and the terrestrial globes of Molyneux 
there is a square label with this inscription This globe, be- 
longing to the Middle Temple, was repaired in the year 
1818 by J. and W. Newton, Globe Makers, Chancery Lane.' 

"Over North America are the arms of France and Eng- 
land quarterly; supporters, a lion and dragon; motto of the 
garter; crown, crest, and baldrequin; standing on a label, 
with a long dedication to Oueen Elizabeth. 

"The achievement of Mr. William Sanderson is painted 
on the imaginary southern continent to the south of Africa. 
The crest is a globe with the sun's rays behind. It stands on 
a squire's helmet with baldrequin. The shield is quarterly; 
1st, paly of six azure and argent, over all a bend sable for 
Sanderson; 2nd, gules, lions, and castles in the quarters for 
Skirne alias Castilion; 3rd, or, a chevron between 3 eagles 
displayed sable, in chief a label of three points sable for 

[ 192 1 




Fig. 79. Terrestrial Globe of Emery Molyneux, 1592. 



Last Quarter of the Sixteenth Century. 

Wall ; 4th, quarterly, or and azure, over all a bend gules for 
Langston. Beneath there is an address from William San- 
derson to the gentle reader, English and Latin, in parallel 
columns. 

"In the north polar regions there are several new addi- 
tions, delineating the discoveries of English and Dutch ex- 
plorers for the first time. John Davis wrote, in his 'World's 
Hydrographical Discovery' : 'How far I proceeded doth 
appear on the globe made by Master Emerie Molyneus.' 
Davis Strait is shown with all the names on its shores which 
were given by its discoverer, and the following legend 
'Joannes Davis Anglus anno 1583-86-87 littora Americae 
circumspectantia a quinquagesimo quinto grado ad 73 sub 
polarem scrutando perlegit.' ('John Davis, an Englishman 
in the years 1583-86-87, gave these names when he mapped 
the shores of America lying between the parallels of ^^ de- 
grees and 73 degrees north latitude.') On another legend 
we have 'Additions in the north parts to 1603'; and below 
it are the discoveries of Barents, with his Novaya Zemlya 
winter quarters — 'Het behouden huis.' Between Novaya 
Zemlya and Greenland there is an island called 'Sir Hugo 
Willoghbi his land.' This insertion arose from a great error 
in longitude, Willoughby having sighted the coast of 
Novaya Zemlya; and the island, of course had no existence, 
though it long remained on the maps. To the north of Siberia 
there are two legends, 'Rd. Cancel arius et Stephanus Bur- 
row Angli Lappiae et Coreliae oras marinas et Simm. S. 
Nicolai vulgo dictum anno 1553 menso Augusto explora- 
verunt' ('Richard Chancelor and Stephen Burrow English- 
men explored the shore of Lapland and Corelia, and of 
Simm. S. Nicolai commonly so called, in the month of 
August 1553'), and 'Joannes Mandevillanus eques Anglius 
ex Anglia anno 1332 Cathaiae et Tartariae regiones penetra- 
venit.' ('John Mandeville an English knight from England 
in the year 1322 entered the regions of Cathay and Tar- 
tary.') 

[ 193 ] 



Terrestrial and Celestial Globes. 

"Many imaginary islands, in the Atlantic, are retained on 
the globe: including 'Frisland,' 'Buss Ins,' 'Brasil,' 'Maidas,' 
'Heptapolis,' 'St-. Brandan.' On the eastern side of North 
America are the countries of Florida, Virginia, and Norum- 
bega; and also a large town of Norumbega up a gulf full of 
islands. 

"The learned Dr. Dee had composed a treatise on the 
title of Queen Elizabeth to Norumbega; and in modern 
times Professor Horsford has written a memoir to identify 
Norumbega with a site up the Charles River, near Boston. 
On the Atlantic, near the American coast, is the following 
legend 'Virginia primum lustrata, habitata, et cultu ab An- 
glis impensis D. Gualteri de Ralegh Equitis Aurati ammenti 
Elizabethae Angliae Reginae.' ('Virginia first surveyed, in- 
habited and cultivated by the English at the expense of Sir 
Walter Raleigh, Knight, subsidized by the gold of Eliza- 
beth Queen of England.') 

"A legend in the Pacific Ocean furnishes direct evidence 
that information, for compiling the globe was supplied by 
Sir Walter Raleigh. It is in Spanish: 'Islas estas descubrio 
Pedro Sarmiento de Gamboa por la Corona de Castella y 
Leon desde el ano 1568 llamolas Islas de Jesus aunque vul- 
farmente las llaman Islas de Salomon.' ('Pedro Sarmiento 
of Gamboa discovered these islands in the year 1568 for the 
crown of Castile and Leon calling them the Islands of Jesus 
though they are commonly called the Salomon Islands.') 

"Pedro Sarmiento was the officer who was sent to fortify 
the Strait of Magellan after Drake had passed through. He 
was taken prisoner by an English ship on his way to Spain, 
and was the guest of Raleigh in London for several weeks, 
so that it must have been on information communicated by 
Raleigh that the statement respecting Sarmiento on this 
legend was based. 

"Besides 'Insulae Salmonis' there are two islands in the 
Pacific, 'Y Sequenda de los Tubarones,' and 'San Pedro,' 

[ 194 ] 



Last Quarter of the Sixteenth Century. 

as well as the north coast of New Guinea, with the names 
given on Mercator's map.' 

"Cavendish also appears to have given assistance, or pos- 
sibly Molyneux himself accompanied that circumnavigator 
in his voyage of 1587. The words of a legend off the Pata- 
gonian coast seem to countenance this idea, reading, 
'Thomas Caundish 18 Dec. 1587 haec terra sub nostris oculis 
primum obtulit sub latitud 47 cujus seu admodum salubris 
Incolae maturi ex parte proceri sunt gigantes et vasti mag- 
nitudinis.' 

"The great southern continent is made to include Tierra 
del Fuego and the south coast of Magellan's Strait, and 
extends over the greater part of the south frigid zone. 

"S. Matheo, an island in the Atlantic, south of the line, 
was visited by the Spanish ships under Loaysa and Sebastian 
del Cano, but has never been seen since. It appears on the 
globe. In the south Atlantic there are painted a sea-serpent, 
a whale, Orpheus riding on a dolphin, and ships under full 
sail — fore and main courses and topsails, a sprit sail, and the 
mizzen with a long lateen yard. 

"The track of the voyage of Sir Francis Drake and 
Master Thomas Cavendish round the world are shown, the 
one by a red and the other by a blue line. That these tracks 
were put on when the globe was first made is proved by the 
reference to them in Blundeville's 'Exercises.' 

"The name of the author of the globe is thus given: 
'Emerum Mullineus Angl. sumptibus Guilelm Sanderson 
Londinensis descripsit.' " 

Markham likewise tells us that the celestial globe, in its 
general features, closely resembles the terrestrial. It carries 
the same arms of Sanderson, and the same label of Newton, 
but a briefer dedication to the Queen. It appears that the 
map was engraved and printed by Hondius of Amsterdam, 
since it carries the brief legend "Judocus Hondius Fon. Sc." 
In addition to the Molyneux globes in the Middle Temple, 
a pair may be found in the Royal Museum of Cassel. A 

[ 195 ] 



Terrestrial and Celestial Globes. 

detailed description of this pair it has not been possible to 
obtain. 

Jost Biirgi, a native of Lichtensteig in the Toggenburg, 
Switzerland, was bom in the year 1552 and died in Cassel 
in the year 1632.^^ Early in life he became a clock maker's 
apprentice, and for some time was engaged with Dasypodius 
in the construction of the famous Strassburg Cathedral 
clock. In the year 1579 he was called to the court of Land- 
grave William IV in Cassel, under whose patronage he 
won great distinction as a maker of astronomical and mathe- 
matical instruments. In the year 1603 he was called into 
the service of the Emperor at Prague, but in the year 1631 
he returned to Cassel, where he died in the following year. 
Biirgi, skilful workman that he was, seems not to have 
found time to tell in words of his various activities. "He 
found pleasure in work," says one of his biographers, and 
left it for others to write of his attainments, which, it may 
here be said, they seem not to have done in a very detailed 
manner. 

Landgrave William's interest in the promotion of scien- 
tific studies led him to the founding of a museum to which 
he made numerous contributions of apparatus, mathematical 
and astronomical. This museum, in the course of years, be- 
came one of the most famous of its kind in all Europe, and 
indeed remains such to this day. In its collections the work 
of Biirgi is well represented, which in the quality of the 
workmanship exhibited, as in the interest it awakens by 
reason of its place as a nucleus around which so much of 
value has been gathered, is unsurpassed. 

Among the first of his instruments may be mentioned an 
astronomical clock, elaborately wrought, with movable discs 
and circles for illustrating the movements of the heavenly 
bodies, and surmounted with an engraved celestial globe, 
which, driven by clockwork, is made to turn on its axis once 
in twenty-four hours. It seems evident that Biirgi con- 

[ 196 ] 



Last Quarter of the Sixteenth Century. 

structed other clocks of like character, supplied, as is this 
example, with a celestial globe. 

In this same Museum of Cassel there is a second celestial 
globe, the work of Biirgi, which was begun in the year 1585, 
and not entirely completed until the year 1693 by Heinrich 
van Lannep. This copper sphere, 72 cm. in diameter, is re- 
markably well preserved. It has a heavy brass meridian circle 
to which is attached an engraved hour circle 46 cm. in diam- 
eter. A large brass semicircle intersects this meridian circle 
at right angles through the north pole, and is attached to 
the horizon circle at its extremities. The instrument rests 
upon an artistic and substantial brass support. On the sur- 
face of the sphere are engraved the principal celestial cir- 
cles, including the colures, the equator, the tropics, the polar 
circles, the ecliptic, and twelve parallels. The stars, of which 
the largest are distinguished by a bit of inlaid silver, and 
the several figures of the constellations which are very artis- 
tically engraved, are clearly the work of a master. 

A third globe of gilded brass, containing clockwork 
within by means of which it is made to revolve and appar- 
ently the work of Biirgi, may also be found in this Cassel 
collection. A small silver sun, movable along the equator, 
is mechanically attached in such manner as to serve admir- 
ably for demonstrative purposes. The engraved surface of 
the globe is equal in its artistic merits to that of the copper 
globe referred to above. 

There is yet a fourth metal globe in this collection, ap- 
parently the work of Biirgi, which is not gilded. In other 
respects it is said to resemble the one designated above as 
the third globe. Kepler is said to have held in the highest 
esteem the scientific work of Biirgi, and to have placed him, 
within his field, as high as he did Albrecht Diirer among 
artists. There appears to be good reason for attributing the 
invention of the pendulum clock to Jost Biirgi, and that 
before 1600 he had proved this method of clock regulation 
practical. 

[ 197 ] 



Terrestrial and Celestial Globes. 

Among the numerous and interesting treasures to be 
found in the Landesmuseum of Zurich is a terrestrial globe 
(Fig. 80) having neither name of maker nor date of con- 
struction, but belonging, undoubtedly, to the late sixteenth 
century.^^ The sphere has a diameter of about 121 cm., is 
mounted on a substantial wooden base, and appears to have 
been made for the monastery of St. Gall, from which place 
it was taken to Ziirich in the year 1712. On the semicircular 
arms which support the equatorial circle are represented 
the armorial bearings of the abbey and monks of St. Gall, 
and the date in gold, 1595, which may refer to the date of 
construction or to the date when it was placed in the monas- 
tery. On the equatorial circle one finds represented the signs 
of the zodiac, the calendar, the names of the saints and of 
the winds. On the heavy meridian circle are indicated the 
climatic zones and the degrees of latitude. The prime merid- 
ian is made to pass through the Azores Islands. The sphere 
is of papier-mache and plaster, on which the engraved gores 
are mounted. The seas have been colored green, the lands a 
dull yellow, the mountain ranges brown. Numerous barbaric 
kings are represented in picture, likewise numerous animals 
of land and sea, and ships artistically drawn sail hither and 
thither over the oceans. The austral continent is wanting. 
Marcel especially notes the striking resemblance of the globe 
map to the Mercator map of 1569, suggesting the possibility 
of its Mercatorian origin, in support of which suggestion he 
quotes a number of geographical names as well as certain 
legends. The globe, it appears, has never been critically 
studied, but is clearly an interesting geographical monument 
of the period. 

The making of globe-goblets in the latter half of the 
sixteenth century and early seventeenth appears to have been 
in response to a fashion especially pronounced in South Ger- 
many, although their construction was not limited to that 
region. Not a few of such globes are extant, which are fine 

[ 198 ] 




Fig. 80. Anonymous Terrestrial Globe, ca. 1595. 



Last Quarter of the Sixteenth Century. 

examples of the metal worker's art, having, however, a 
decorative rather than a scientific value. 

Professor Fischer gives us an interesting description of 
such a goblet of gilded silver (Fig. 81), dating from the 
end of the sixteenth or the beginning of the seventeenth 
century, and it is from his account that the following refer- 
ence is taken. ^* This piece he pronounces the most valuable 
treasure in the plate room of the princely castle of Wolfegg, 
to which castle it was the author's privilege to pay a most 
interesting visit more than a decade ago. The globe was long 
considered a christening gift from the Emperor Francis to 
his godson Francis of the Waldburg zu Wolfegg princely 
family and was supposed to date from the end of the 
eighteenth century. Professor Fischer, however, found 
this "globis terrestris" referred to in a testament dated 
January 17, 1779, with instructions that it, with cer- 
tain other treasures, should not be recast or otherwise 
altered from its ancient form. It was at that time 
recognized as a masterpiece, but from the hands of an un- 
known master, and not until recently was it definitely 
determined to be the work of the Zurich goldsmith, Abra- 
ham Gessner (1552-1613). "Gessner appears to have manu- 
factured his globe-goblets," says Fischer, "not in response 
to orders previously given, but in the regular pursuit of his 
trade. At a time when rich merchants and scholars took 
such a lively interest in geography, and the opening up of 
new countries, he could count upon a market all the more 
readily because his goblets were made with the utmost care 
in every detail and were perfect examples of the various 
branches of the goldsmith's art ; casting, embossing, chasing, 
engraving, and solid gilding."^^ 

The goblet is 58 cm. in height. Its larger globe, a terres- 
trial, is composed of two hemispheres joined on the line of 
the equator, and has a diameter of 1 7 cm. The support is a 
standing figure of Atlas, which also serves as a stem of the 
lower half or the lower goblet, just as the celestial sphere 

[ 199 ] 



Terrestrial and Celestial Globes. 

with its support which tops the piece serves as the stem of the 
upper half or upper goblet. 

The oceans, lakes, and rivers have a silver surface, while 
the continents, islands, sea monsters, sailing vessels, prin- 
cipal parallels, and meridians are gilded. The continents 
of Europe, Asia, and Africa, and the "terra australis sive 
Magallanica" have their outlines drawn in the main as they 
appear on Mercator's map of 1569. While certain recent 
discoveries as "Nowaja Semi j a" (Nova Zembla) are repre- 
sented, it does not appear that Gessner was inclined to insist 
on his map records being laid down with the strictest accu- 
racy as to geographical detail. 

The celestial globe topping the goblet is given an artistic 
setting. It is furnished with horizon, meridian, and hour 
circles. The several constellations represented on the surface 
of the sphere are, through gilding, given special prominence, 
their execution, like other parts of the piece, being of the 
finest workmanship. 

The figure of Atlas supporting the globes exhibits skill 
in its construction. It stands with one foot slightly advanced, 
with the right hand extended upward as if to catch the ball 
should it fall from the head of the figure. The hair and the 
beard are gilded, as is also the drapery, one end of which 
hangs loosely over the right shoulder, while the other covers 
the front of the body and is held in the left hand at the 
back, being made to serve in part as a support. 

Fischer calls attention to two globe-goblets belonging to 
the University of Basel and to one privately owned; to one 
in the town hall of Rappoltsweiler; one in what was for- 
merly the Rothschild Collection of Frankfurt, and to one 
in the Museum of Stockholm, once the property of Gustavus 
Adolphus, which probably is the one elsewhere referred to; 
and he also calls attention to an undated globe-gob- 
let, purchased in Paris in the year 1901 by the Swiss Na- 
tional Museum of Ziirich for the sum of forty-two thousand 
francs. It had previously been referred to by Marcel as the 

[ 200 ] 



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Fig. 8i. Globe-Goblet of 

Abraham Gessner, 

ca. i6oo. 




Fig. 82. Gold Globe-Goblet, ca. 1575, 



Last Quarter of the Sixteenth Century. 

work of Gessner, in proof of which he noted that it bears 
the mark of this goldsmith, the same being the letter "Z." 
The terrestrial globe, like that of Wolfegg, has a diameter 
of 17 cm., the whole being very artistically designed and 
engraved. It, too, is surmounted by a celestial globe and 
rests on a figure of Atlas, which figure in turn stands upon 
an ornamental base. Each of the two globes can be opened 
on the line of the equator, thus practically making four 
drinking cups. On the terrestrial globe, Marcel notes, Cali- 
fornia is represented as an island. Near "Nova Guinea" one 
finds the inscription "Nova Guinea semper inventa qual 
. . . insula an pars continentas australis." A large austral 
land is represented with the inscription "Hanc continentem 
australem nonvuUi Magelanicam regionem ab ejus inventore 
nuncupant." The absence of the Strait of Lemaire and of 
New Zealand, with the representation of the austral land 
with more or less indefinite outline, Marcel thinks warrants 
a belief that it was constructed near the close of the six- 
teenth century. Attention is likewise called by Marcel in his 
article to three other small globes which he found in the 
Museum des Cordeliers of Basel, and also to one "tres beau 
et tres riche" in the Musee Ariana of Geneva. 

A very artistic gold beaker globe (Fig. 82) may be found 
in the collection presented by Mr. J. P. Morgan to the 
Metropolitan Museum of New York City. The sphere of 
this, which opens on the line of the ecliptic, has a diameter 
of 8 cm. and rests upon the figure of a satyr with uplifted 
hands forming a part of the support, this figure in turn 
resting upon an ornamental circular base. Topping the 
sphere is a small figure of Neptune carrying a trident and 
standing in a shell or conventionalized small boat. The 
engraved figures of the many constellations decorate the 
surface of the sphere. 

In the private library of Mr. J. Pierpont Morgan may be 
found a fine example of an ivory terrestrial globe of this 
period (Fig. 83). It is hollow, being composed of two 

[ 201 ] 



Terrestrial and Celestial Globes. 

hemispheres joined on the line of the equator, and has a 
diameter of about 8 cm. Near the south pole is the author 
and date legend (Figs. 84, 84^) "Antonius Spano tropiensis 
fecit 1593." "Made by Antonio Spano of Tropea, 1593." In 
the unnamed southern continent, and over a representation 
of the Spanish arms, is the dedication to the Infante Philip, 
afterward Philip III, reading "Principi Philip. Philip II 
Hisp. Indiar. Neap, e Siciliae Cathol. Regis Filio," and 
within the Antarctic circle a salutation reading "Princeps fe- 
licissime totus Orbis ad se gubernandum te vocat et expec- 
tat." "O most fortunate ruler, the whole world calls and 
awaits you to govern it." Antonio, a native of Tropea, near 
Naples, was granted in the year 1595 a pension of one hun- 
dred ducats, by his master and patron, Philip II. This he 
seems to have enjoyed until his death, which occurred in 
Madrid in the year 1615. We learn that this was continued 
to his son, Francisco Spano, by King Philip III. The mount- 
ing of the globe, which is simple, seems to be of a later date 
than that given as the year of construction in the date legend, 
but it is well suited to the artistic piece. The world map is 
well executed, and may be said to be in a perfect state of pres- 
ervation. Its geographical details, in so far as given, are quite 
as good as the best to be found at this time, though it is 
very evident that the piece was primarily intended to possess 
decorative rather than scientific value. The Mediterranean 
region gives us in its general features a representation of the 
Ptolemaic ideas, particularly to be observed in the repre- 
sentation of Italy and the Caspian Sea. In Chinese Asia ap- 
pears a legend reading, "Hie artem impremendi ante mille 
anos habuerunt." "Here they had the art of printing a 
thousand years ago." 

In "Ratai" (Katai) a flag is represented reminding of 
Marco Polo, and near this the legend "His magnus Cham 
Tartarorum et Chataiae imperator longe dominatur." 

In this Asiatic region we find such names as "Tabin," 
"Ania," "Quinsai," "Catigara," "Zaiton," "India Orien- 

[ 202 ] 




Fig. 83. Ivory Terrestrial Globe of Antonio Spano, 1593. 



Last Quarter of the Sixteenth Century. 

talis." "Stretto Anian" appears as a long channel. In Africa 
we read, "His Imperator magnus Presbyter Africae Rex 
potentis mus." In the New World we find "America sive 
India nova," which is not connected with Asia, The coast 
in the northern regions is better drawn than in the southern. 
The St. Lawrence River is represented, but the Great Lakes 
are omitted. "Estland," "Frisland," and "St. Brandan" are 
laid down. The austral land, as represented, is very large, 
being designated "Terra Australis: Vastissimas hie esse 
regiones ex M. Pauli Ven. et Lud. Vartomani scriptis peri- 
grinationibus constat." "Austral land: here is known to be a 
very extensive region referred to in the travel records of 
Marco Polo and of Ludovico Vartema." Mr. Beazley says 
of the globe that it once belonged to the Kempenaer family 
of Leenwarden, and was later acquired by Mr. H. J. 
Pfungst through the firm of Miller & Company of Amster- 
dam.^* It later passed into the library of Mr. Morgan. 

As noted at the beginning of this chapter, leadership in 
globe and map making, in the closing years of the century, 
was passing into the Netherlands, which in the second quar- 
ter of the century had contributed in this field of scientific 
endeavor the great Mercator. His influence, as was also 
noted, found its way into Italy and into favor with certain 
globe makers, although the individualistic spirit of the 
Italians seemed to show a marked preference for manuscript 
and engraved metal globes. In the front rank of those who 
were to lead the Low Countries into their place of preemi- 
nence stood the Van Langren family, the father. Jacobus 
Florentius, as he was accustomed to call himself, and the 
sons, Amoldus Florentius, Henricus Florentius, and Michael 
Florentius." The father was a native of Denmark, but 
sometime prior to 1 580 he transferred his residence to Arn- 
hem in Gelderland, and later to Amsterdam. Legends on his 
oldest extant globe give us to understand that at the time 
of its construction he labored jointly with his son Arnold in 
this work, these legends reading "Jacobus Florentius Ultra- 

[ 203 ] 



Terrestrial and Celestial Globes. 

jectensis autor," and "Arnoldus Florentius filius sculptor 
Amstelodami 1585," that is, the father was the author and 
the son was the engraver. 

In the early seventeenth century the family left Amster- 
dam, going to Antwerp in the Spanish Netherlands. Here 
in the year 1609, according to an Antwerp record, Arnold 
constructed a "Sphaera Mundi," which he dedicated to the 
chief magistrate of that city, receiving therefor 120 Artois 
livres. It probably was not long after this date that he was 
appointed Globe Maker of the Archdukes, a title he retained 
until the death of the Archduke Albert in the year 1621, 
and a somewhat later record tells us that he was honored 
shortly after that event by an appointment to the office of 
Royal Cosmographer and Pensioner of His Majesty the 
Catholic King. Michael became a resident of Brussels, where 
he carried on his work as an engraver, particularly of maps, 
but it was as an astronomer that he won special distinction, 
having given much attention to the investigations of meth- 
ods for the determination of longitude and he is further 
credited with having given the so-called seas of the moon 
the names by which they are still known. 

As globe maker perhaps the greater honor is due Jacobus 
Florentius, since it appears that Arnold, though perhaps the 
more active, reproduced in the main only the works of his 
father, adding improvement here and there and endeavoring, 
perhaps in part for business reasons, to keep his globe maps 
up to date. Reference has been made above to the oldest 
extant Van Langren globe, which bears the date 1585. Van 
der Aa refers to a request of Arnold Floris van Langelaer 
and of his father, Jacob Floris van Langelaer, presented to 
the States of Gelderland and accompanying a copy of his 
globe, which seems to have been dated 1580. Of this globe 
it is stated that it was "een seer correcte ende schoone 
Globum terrestrem, van de grootste forme," and that it was 
inscribed as is that of the year 1 585. A doubt, however, arises 
as to the accuracy of the date 1 580, since Van der Aa states 

[ 204 ] 




Fig. 84. South Polar Region on Globe of 
Antonio Spano, 1593. 




^'"^■'^i,.-f 



Fig. 84a. South Polar Region on Globe of 
Jodocus Hondius, 1600. 



Last Quarter of the Sixteenth Century. 

in the same article that Arnoldus was born in the year 1 57 1 . 
This particular globe was formerly kept in the "Geldersch 
Gerichtshof," as Van Hasselt tells us, but since the destruc- 
tion of that court nothing has been known of the inventory 
of the objects which had been placed therein. In support, 
however, of an early date, perhaps 1580, for the first Van 
Langren globe, we find in the dedication of a work by 
Nicolas Petri, published in the year 1588, and issued as a 
manual for the use of globes, that it was especially made 
for the use of a Van Langren globe. In this work the author 
is represented in picture in the act of examining a globe, a 
picture practically the same as that appearing in a work by 
Petri issued in the year 1583. It seems, therefore, not to be 
an erroneous inference that the author gives us here a repre- 
sentation of the Van Langren globe of 1 580, which is want- 
ing much in the accuracy with which its details are given. 
The globe of 1585, referred to above as the oldest extant 
of Van Langren, may be found in the collection of the 
Museo deir Osservatorio del CoUegio Romano (Fig. 84). 
The dedication under an elaborately colored coat of arms 
of Denmark reads, "Serenissimo atque potentissimo Prin- 
cipi Domino D. Christiano nn. Daniae Norvegiae Vanda- 
lorum et Gothorum Regi Duci Slesvivi Holsatiae Stormariae 
et Dithmortiae Comiti Oldenburgi et Del menorsti Jacobus 
Florentius dedicabat." "To the Most Serene and mighty 
Prince Lord D. Christian King of Denmark, Norway, the 
Wends and the Goths, Duke of Schleswick Holstein, Stor- 
mam, Ditmarsh, Count of Oldenburg and Delmenhorst 
(this globe) is dedicated by Jacobus Florent." The usual 
letter to the reader or to the one who might have occasion to 
make use of the globe gives the information: "In descrip- 
tione hujus globi ubiq: sequuti sumus castigatissimas Tabu- 
las geographicas quibus Hispani et Lusitani in suis americis 
et indicis navigationibus utantur; aliorumque probatissimas 
Septentrional ium regionum descriptiones. De nostro suis 
locis addidimus quadrata ut vocant nautica et ventorum 

[ 205 ] 



Terrestrial and Celestial Globes. 

regiones quae omnia ad usum navigantium ad amussim ac- 
comodavimus quaemadmodum Geographiae candidati pro- 
pius inspiciendo reperient. Vale fruere." "In the construc- 
tion of this globe I have everywhere made use of the most 
accurate geographical tables, such as were used by the 
Spaniards and the Portuguese in their voyages to America 
and the East Indies ; as also for the northern regions the very 
best drawings of others. My own contribution has been to 
insert in the proper places the nautical squares, as they are 
called, and the directions of the winds, all of which I have 
carefully adapted to the need of the navigator, as experts 
in geography will, on examination, recognize. Farewell and 
may you be happy." In a cartouch on the left we read 
"Jacobus Florentius Ultrajectensis autor," and on the right 
"Arnoldus Florentius filius sculptor Amstelodami 1585." 
The sphere, which is hollow, is constructed of wooden strips 
covered with a preparation of plaster. It has a diameter of 
about 32 cm. and is therefore slightly smaller than is the 
Mercator globe of 1541. It is furnished with a graduated 
brass meridian circle and with a horizon circle of the same 
material, which is supported by four arms or quadrants 
upheld by a simple base. The engraved gores pasted on the 
ball are twelve in number and extend to within twenty 
degrees of the poles, the remaining space being covered 
with an engraved circular disc, in accord with a method first 
employed by Mercator. The surface of the globe is not well 
preserved, yet notwithstanding the injuries which time has 
brought to it, it remains a masterpiece of engraving and 
a valuable geographical record of that early day. Its numer- 
ous inscriptions are of much interest. We read, for example, 
in latitude 35 degrees south and longitude 185 degrees, 
"Vastissimas hie esse regiones ex M. Pauli Veneti et Ludo- 
vico Vartomanni scriptis peregrinationibus liquido constat." 
"The voyage of Marco Polo and of Ludovico Varthema 
make it certain that an enormous territory exists here." 
In latitude 16 degrees south and longitude 175 degrees is 

[ 206 ] 



Last Quarter of the Sixteenth Century. 

the legend, "Moluccae vocantur 5 insulae ordine postiae 
juxta Gilolo quarum suprema Tarenare deinceps Tidore 
Motir Machiam et infima Bachiam." "The Moluccas is the 
name given to the five islands in a row close to Gilolo, the 
uppermost of which is Tarenare, then Tidore, Motir, 
Machiam, and the lowest Bachiam." In latitude 10 degrees 
south and longitude 348 degrees we read, "Maranon fluvius 
investus fuit a Vincentio Yanes Pinzon an: 1499 et an: 
1542 totus a fontibus fere ad ostia usq: divulgatus a Fran- 
cesco Oregliana leucis 1560 mensibus 8 dulces in mari servat 
aquas usque 40 leucis." "The Amazon River was discovered 
by Vicente Yanez Pinzon in 1499, while in 1542 Francisco 
Orellana explored it a distance of 1560 leagues or almost its 
entire length from source to mouth in eight months. In the 
sea its waters are still fresh forty leagues from land." The 
following is placed in latitude 28 degrees north and longi- 
tude 320 degrees, "A. D. 1492. 12 octobris Christophorus 
Columbus novam Indiam nomine regis Castellae delexit, 
prima terra quam conquisit fuit Haiti nunc Hispaniola." 
"October 12, 1492, Christopher Columbus took possession 
of New India in the name of the King of Castile. The first 
land he conquered was called Haiti now called Hispaniola." 
In latitude 65 degrees north and longitude 230 degrees is 
the legend, "Regio deserta in qua equi oves et boves silves- 
tres sunt plurimi quales esse in una Hebridum insularum 
narratur." "A desert country in which there are a great many 
wild horses, sheep and cattle, as is said to be the case in one 
of the Hebrides." 

That this Van Langren globe was well received by his 
contemporaries seems to be witnessed by the special privi- 
lege granted September 9, 1592, to Jacobus Florentius a 
Langren by the Estates of Amsterdam to issue the same.^* 
On presenting his request for the privilege the author states 
that he was the inventor of globes of this character, that his 
globes were unsurpassed in the matter of correctness by any 
which had been previously issued, and that with the aid 

[ 207 ] 



Terrestrial and Celestial Globes. 

of his globes certain Dutch navigators had sailed to Pemam- 
buco in Brazil, to the island of St. Thomas under the equa- 
tor, to the Isle de Principe and to other places. This privilege 
was renewed to him and to his sons Arnoldus and Henricus 
in the year 1 596. In the following year the Estates General 
granted a privilege to Jodocus Hondius, who had con- 
structed a globe in England in the year 1593, of which, 
however, no example appears now to be known. The Van 
Langrens contested this claim at law, the results of which 
contest seem not to be recorded, but we know that Jodocus 
Hondius enumerated at this time what he considered to be 
the particular points in which his own globes excelled.^® In 
his report he enumerated no less than fourteen important 
geographical discoveries which were not represented on the 
globes of his opponents, the Van Langrens, the majority of 
which, as corrections, seem to have been accepted, since they 
appear on the later Van Langren globes and not on the 
earlier, that is, on the one of 1585. 

The Kon. Nederl. Aardrijkskundig Genootschap has re- 
cently come into possession of the finest known example of 
the Van Langren globes (Fig. 85), as indeed it is one of the 
finest extant globes of that period.*" The engraved gores, 
twelve in number, are pasted on a hollow sphere of papier- 
mache and plaster, having a diameter of 52.8 cm. It is fur- 
nished with a graduated copper meridian circle within which 
it is adjusted to rdvolve, a horizon circle of wood on which 
appear the names of the winds in Greek, Latin, and Dutch, 
the names of the months, the names of the principal feast 
days, and the signs of the zodiac, the whole resting on a base 
of oak having six supporting columns. As an example of the 
engraver's art the map which covers the sphere is one of 
superior excellence. A manuscript dedication, pasted on its 
surface near the "Mar di India" and surmounted by a repre- 
sentation of the Spanish coat of arms, reads, "Collegio Ratio- 
ciniorum Brabanti regnantibus; Alberto et Isabellae Opt. 
Max. Belgii Principibus. Singulari observantia Dedicabat 

[ 208 ] 




Fig. 85. Terrestrial Globe of \'an Langren, 1612. 



Last Quarter of the Sixteenth Century. 

Arnoldus Florentinus a Langren. Ano Dni 1612." "To the 
College of Computations of Brabant, to Albert and Isabella, 
the very great Princes of Belgium, Arnold Florentius van 
Langren dedicates with great respect (this globe) in the year 
1612." Beneath "Nova Guinea" is given the privilege 
"Cautum est privilegio ordinum Confoederatorum Inferioris 
Germaniae, ne quis alius ad decennium globum hunc terres- 
trem absq. consensu Jacobi Florentii civis Amsteldamen. 
typis mandare vel simili, vel alia forma excudere, vel alibi im- 
pressum adducere, aut vendere ausit, sub poena in diplomate 
statuta, 1608." "Warning is given by the privilege (copy- 
right) of the Confederated States of the Netherlands that 
no other individual for a period of ten years, shall venture 
to print in similar or in other form, to stamp (engrave) or 
make an impression, or to sell, under penalty set down in 
the diploma, 1608." In this legend the date 1608 has been 
written over the engraved date 1597. 

Among the legends appearing in the southern hemisphere 
is one which is but a repetition of that appearing in the edi- 
tion of 1585 referring to the source of information begin- 
ning, "In descriptio hujus . . ." Beneath the artistic car- 
touch wherein is placed the last-named legend is one in 
which are recorded the names of the author and the engraver, 
"Jacobus Florentius Ultrajectensis Author: Arnoldus Flo- 
rentius filius sculptor Amstelredami Ao. Dni," the date, par- 
tially erased from the copper plate employed in the print- 
ing, seems to read 1585. Certain regions are adorned with 
pictures in which are represented the aborigines, and the local 
fauna and flora. Sea monsters constitute a part of the deco- 
rative features of the globe map, and ships sail hither and 
thither over the oceans, carrying the flags of their respective 
countries. The author has laid down the "Streto de Anian" 
which separated America from Asia, and California is a 
peninsula. The "Quivira regnum" is made to include a part 
of western North America, and the great stretch of country 
to the west of the Mississippi appears to be the home of wild 

[ 209 1 



Terrestrial and Celestial Globes. 

horses and cattle. The eastern coast line of America included 
within the present limits of the United States is represented 
with a remarkable approach to accuracy, a portion of his 
information for that region being derived from the report of 
Thomas Heriot. Following Mercator there have been placed 
four large islands around the north pole, and in the north 
Atlantic "Frisland," "S. Brandain," and "Brasil." India, 
Australia, and other regions of the Far East have been repre- 
sented with remarkable faithfulness to the latest and best 
records of Dutch navigators, and the author profited by 
Dutch records of exploration in his representation of the 
Nova Zembla region. There is yet a far from accurate de- 
lineation of the great eastern archipelago. Java, Celebes, 
Borneo, and "Nova Guinea" have been fairly well outlined, 
and about the south pole is that great austral continent con- 
spicuous on the maps of the period, but very generally out- 
lined as the fancy of the map maker directed. 

In the library of the University of Ghent is a Van Lan- 
gren terrestrial globe undated but apparently completed not 
long after 1616, since it directs attention to the Strait of Le- 
maire, discovered in that year. It has the authors' inscrip- 
tion "Jacobus Florentius Ultrajectensis Author. Amoldus 
Florentius filius sculptor Amsterdam," and bears in addi- 
tion the legend "Amoldus Florentius a Langren, Serenissum. 
Archiducu. Austr. Burgundiae, Brabantiae, Ducum, Sphae- 
reographus Author. Cum Privileg." "Arnoldus Florentius 
a Langren globe maker and author to the most Serene Arch- 
duke of Austria, of Burgundy, Duke of Brabant. With privi- 
lege." This globe is described as one well preserved, re- 
sembling very closely that of 1612, particularly in its 
geographical details as well as in its mountings. 

The Bibliotheque Nationale of Paris possesses a Van 
Langren terrestrial globe, with date illegible, but thought 
to be 1625, which appears to be a reissue of the previous 
editions, especially of the later ones. A legend including an 
address to the reader concludes with a reference to the 

[ 210 ] 



Last Quarter of the Sixteenth Century. 

author "Amoldus Florentio a Langren Reg. Cat. Majis. 
cosmografo et pensionario." "Amoldus Florentius a Lan- 
gren, cosmographer and pensioner of His Catholic Majesty." 

There are two globes of Arnoldus, a celestial and a ter- 
restrial, formerly in the Municipal Archives of Antwerp, 
now in the Plantin-Moritus Museum. An inscription on the 
celestial globe reads: "Globus coelestis stellarum fixarum 
loca ipsis in coelo ad amussim congrua repraesentans ad 
annum 1600 juxta accuratas observationes Tychonis Brahe 
denuo ad annum 162- diligentiss. restitutus novis item stel- 
lis 400 hactenus non notatis. Ornatusque trecentis stellis 
circa polum antarcticum ab Houtmanno Holando observatis 
industria Amoldi Florentii van Langren Cosmographici, qui 
olim observationibus : Tyconis interfuit. Operam sibi filii 
parenti felicissime contulerunt." "A celestial globe which 
represents the position of the fixed stars, corresponding to 
the actual position of the stars in the sky in the year 1600, 
following the accurate observations of Tycho Brahe and 
with great care again calculated for the year 162-: also 400 
new stars are added which had not hitherto been recorded. 
Also there have been added 300 south polar stars that were 
observed by Houtman of Holland. Constructed by Arnold 
Florent van Langren, cosmographer who assisted Tycho in 
his observations. The sons have aided their father with the 
happiest effect." 

The terrestrial globe, in a much better state of preserva- 
tion, contains, in a neat cartouch, an address to the reader, 
explaining the merits of the globe map: "Quandoquidem 
quotidiana diversarum nationum, praecipue tamen Holan- 
dorum navigatione omnes mundi plagas perlustrantium, 
varii orbis tractus, remotae insulae et quamplurima regna 
hactenenus incognita nunc in dies innotuere, et quae fuere 
cognita majori studio et situs observatione perlustrata sunt. 
Prodit hie noster Globus multo praecedentibus a nobis edi- 
tis, qui primi in his provinciis prodierunt accuratior et emen- 
datior. In quo omnium locorum nomina, et quo tempore, et 

[ 211 ] 



Terrestrial and Celestial Globes. 

cujus auspiciis quaeque detecta sint expressimus. Curavimus 
praeterea non sine magno labore et cura, ut singulae Re- 
giones, Insulae, Portus, Braevia, et Scopuli suae longitudini 
et latitudini respondeant, quibus Indices seu lineas vento- 
rum ..." "Inasmuch as, on account of voyages, daily under- 
taken by various nations, especially the Dutch, who have 
sailed along all the coasts of the world, the various regions 
of the earth, distant islands, and innumerable countries hith- 
erto unknown, have every day become better known (addi- 
tional facts) and our knowledge of those already discovered 
has become much clearer through a more detailed examina- 
tion and detailed observation, this present globe of ours, 
presents itself to the public as one much more exact, more free 
from errors than those previously issued by us, which were the 
first ever presented to the public of these provinces. On it we 
have recorded the names of all places, also when and under 
whose auspices they were severally discovered. We have 
taken the greatest care and pains to make the location of the 
various regions, islands, seaports, shoals, and rocks corre- 
spond to the true latitude and longitude, whereby the direc- 
tions of the winds (loxodromic lines) . . ." The concluding 
lines of this address are illegible, but there seems to be noth- 
ing of special importance lost. The author's signature reads 
"Auctor Arnoldo Florentio a Langre Reg. Cat: Ma^^^ Cos- 
mographo et Pensionario." "Author Arnoldus Florentius a 
Langren, cosmographer and pensioner of His Royal Catholic 
Majesty." 

A copy of a Van Langren globe may be found in the 
Museum of Ziitphen, but information concerning it has not 
been obtainable other than that it is in a damaged condi- 
tion, and is apparently another example of the one referred 
to above as of 1612. 

Among those interested in geography, in astronomy, and 
particularly in the construction of armillary spheres in this 
period very special mention should be made of Antonio 
Santucci. For some time he served Prince, later Grand Duke, 

[ 212 ] 



Last Quarter of the Sixteenth Century. 

Ferdinand de' Medici as his cosmographer. It was during this 
period of service that he restored the famous terrestrial globe 
of Egnazio Danti which was a particularly creditable piece 
of work. In the year 1582 he constructed a large armillary 
sphere composed of wooden rings, very artistically gilded 
and painted, representing in particular the orbits of the 
planets. This the Prince is said to have presented to one 
Battaglioni of Naples; further than this fact nothing seems 
to be known of this particular example. In the year 1606, 
we are informed, he collected and sent to the Grand Duke 
a number of valuable maps relating to Europe, Asia, Africa, 
and the West Indies, and to the several separate countries 
of Europe. In the year 1619 he published, through the favor 
of Duke Ferdinand, a treatise on comets and the new stars 
appearing between the years 1577 and 1607. What is prob- 
ably the finest of all his spheres belongs to the Museo di 
Strumenti Antichi of Florence, which has been restored 
and interestingly described by the distinguished scholar, 
Ferdinand Meucci." As an instrument intended to represent 
the entire universe, though constructed for display rather 
than for use, it remains one of the finest constructed in the 
peninsula during the century. 

The largest of its nine concentric circles has a diameter 
of 220 cm., the smallest a diameter of 70 cm., and at the 
common center is a terrestrial globe having a diameter of 
60 cm. Each of the nine great circles or spheres has its own 
smaller circles representing the equator, the ecliptic, the 
colures, and the polar circles, the ninth having also the 
tropics and the hour circle. The eighth, representing the 
starry heavens, has its ecliptic four times the width of the 
corresponding circles of the other spheres. Meucci states, in 
his detailed description, that there are no less than eighty- 
two armillae or rings, large and small, to which, he adds, 
eight larger ones might be added, these being cut in half 
and arranged somewhat in the form of a cup, the lower half 
supporting the horizon circle, the upper half serving as a 

[ 213 ] 



Terrestrial and Celestial Globes. 

support for an adjustable cover of the entire instrument. 
This arrangement suggests that it was the author's intention 
to have these last-named half circles represent the empyrean 
or home of the celestial spirits, a thought supported by the 
fact that at the common intersecting point of the upper half 
of these circles is placed a disc on which is represented the 
Deity in the act of contemplating his creation. The whole 
instrument is topped by a cross. 

Meucci, in referring to his own work of restoring and re- 
mounting the great sphere, observes that at the poles of the 
ecliptic there are two discs on which have been painted the 
coat of arms of the Medici family together with the coat 
of arms of the Lorena, Christina di Lorena being the wife of 
Ferdinand, to whom the work had been dedicated. He fur- 
ther notes that his researches led him to the discovery that 
the instrument originally cost 1052.2 scudi, which, with an 
incidental addition of 170 scudi, thought proper to be in- 
cluded in the reckoning, would make the entire expense of 
construction 1222.2 scudi or about 7187 liri, that is, less 
than $1400. The amount seems insignificant, remembering 
that the work was begun in the year 1 588 and was not com- 
pleted until the year 1593, claiming therefore five years of 
the maker's time. The map on the terrestrial globe seems to 
have been well drawn, and is remarkable for its representa- 
tion of the geography of the interior of Africa, particularly 
for the region about the source of the Nile. 

In the library of Mr. Henry E. Huntington may be found 
an exceedingly fine armillary sphere (Fig. 86). It is neither 
signed nor dated, but there appears to be good reason for 
attributing it to Antonio Santucci, and its date to about the 
year 1580. Constructed entirely of wood, with paper iden- 
tifying labels pasted on the surface of each of the numerous 
circles, it is a well-preserved example of Italian workman- 
ship. It is furnished with horizon, meridian, tropical, polar, 
and ecliptic circles, the first being graduated on both the 
outer and the inner edge. This horizon circle has a diameter 

[ 214 ] 




Fig. 86. Armillary Sphere of Antonio Santucci ( "?), 
ca. 1580. 



Last Quarter of the Sixteenth Century. 

of about 50 cm., and a width of about 7 cm., the width of 
the other circles being well proportioned for artistic effect. 
Within the circles named are those representing the orbits of 
"Luna," "Mercurio," "Venere," "Sole," "Marte," "Giove," 
"Satumo," with the earth at the center according to the 
Ptolemaic system. It has a single standard support resting on 
a solid circular disc about 33 cm. in diameter. 

The Mathematisch-Physikal. Salon of Dresden possesses 
a fine celestial globe signed and dated "B. F. 1600." It is an 
exceedingly elaborate piece (Fig. 87), being made of gilded 
bronze and furnished with a mounting of ornamental design. 
The sphere, having a diameter of 11.6 cm., exhibits on its 
engraved surface in outline the figures of the several con- 
stellations, with the name of each, and in addition the prin- 
cipal celestial circles including the meridians. It is furnished, 
in its mountings, with a graduated bronze meridian circle 
to which is attached, near the north equatorial pole, a clock 
dial with hour and minute hands, the dial being marked 
with the hours from I to XII. Surmounting the whole is an 
artistic bronze box, within which have been placed the works 
by means of which the clock is driven and the sphere made 
to revolve. The broad horizon circle, which is engraved with 
the usual concentric circles, rests upon branched supports, 
which in turn are attached to a finely wrought base having 
four curved legs terminating in conventionally designed 
griffin claws. 

Though differing very considerably in the details of its 
construction, it may be classed with such globes as are those 
made by Roll and Reinhold, briefly described above. In- 
deed, the suggestion forces itself upon one that to their 
workshop or to one who may be referred to as a workman of 
their school, we owe this interesting example. Attention has 
been previously called to certain early globes which seem 
primarily to have been constructed to contain the works of 
clocks such as the Jagellonicus. Here as in the case of the 
Roll and Reinhold globes, and as in certain other examples, 

[ 215 ] 



Terrestrial and Celestial Globes. 

we find clockwork attachments designed to regulate the 
revolutions of the globe of which they form a part. While 
the globe is the more elaborately wrought part of this par- 
ticular example, it does not seem improbable that the clock 
originally was considered to be the more important part. 



NOTES 

1. See Chap. X. 

2. Kastner. Geschichte der Mathematik. Vol. II, pp. 215 ff.; Wolf, R. 
Notizen zur Geschichte der Mathematik in der Schweiz, "Conrad Dasypo- 
dius." (In: Mitteilung der naturforschenden Gesellschaft zu Bern. Bern, 
1845. No. 56.) ; Allgemeine deutsche Biographie, "Dasypodius, Conrad." 

3. Doppelmayr. Historische Nachricht. p. 51. 

4. Schricker, A. Z. Zur Geschichte der Universitat Strassburg. Strassburg, 
1872 ; Heitz, E. Zur Geschichte der alten Strassburger Universitat. Strass- 
burg, 1885. 

5. The British Museum Catalogue lists many of these works. 

6. Wolf, R. Nachrichten. (In: Mitteilung der naturforschenden Gesell- 
schaft zu Bern. Bern, 1854. p. 69.) ; Doppelmayr, op. cit., p. 115; Habrecht, 
I. Tractatus de planiglobis coelestis ac terrestris. Strassburg, 1628. 

7. Doppelmayr, op. cit., p. 208. 

8. Montucla, J. E. Histoire des Mathematiques . . . Paris, 1799-1802. 

9. Dasypodius, C. Horologii astronomei Argentorati in summo templo 
erecti descriptio. Argentorati, 1580; same author. Warhafftige Auslegung 
des astronomischen Uhrwercks zu Strassburg. Strassburg, 1580. 

10. Schwilgue, C. Description abregee de I'horologe astronomique de la 
cathedrale de Strassbourg. Strassbourg, 1856. 

u. Britten, F. J. Old clocks and watches and their makers. London, 1899. 

12. Varnhagen, A. de. J. Schoner e P. Apian. Wien, 1872; Giinther, S. 
Peter und Philipp Apian, zwei deutsche Mathematiker und Kartographen. 
Prag, 1882 ; Nordenskiold. Facsimile Atlas, p. 100. 

In the year 1520 Peter Apianus published in his edition of Solinus' 
Polyhistor a world map, following therein the general design of Waldsee- 
miiller in his world map of the year 1507. The map of Apianus has long 
been regarded as one of the most important of the early printed maps on 
which the New World is represented. Until the recent discovery by Pro- 
fessor Joseph Fischer of Waldseemiiller's long-lost map, it has frequently 
been referred to as the first engraved map on which the name "America" 
appears. The 'Cosmographia' of Apianus, first issued in the year 1524, was 
frequently reissued thereafter, notably by Gemma Frisius. 

13. Clemens, C. Musei, sive bibliothecae tarn privatae quam publicae 
extructio. Lugduni, 1635. Liber Quartus. p. 527. 

14. Kepler, J. Joannis Kepleri Opera Omnia. Ed. by Frisch. Frankfurt, 
1858. Vol. I, p. 812. 

[ 216 ] 




Fig. 87. Celestial Globe of B. F., 1600. 



Last Quarter of the Sixteenth Century. 

15. Gemelin, L. Untersatz eines Globus von Philipp Apian. (In: Stutt- 
garter Gewerbhalle. Stuttgart, 1885. Taf. 62.) ; Gunther, S. Die Munchener 
Globen Philipp Apians. (In: Jahrbuch fiir miinchener Geschichte. Miin- 
chen, 1888. pp. 131-148.) 

16. Giinther. Die Miinchener Globen. p. 132. 

17. Zimmermann, M. Hans Miielich und Herzog Albrecht V. Munchen, 
iSS?. The author thinks it hardly probable that Miielich was the artist 
employed in the decoration of these globes, but praises the excellent work- 
manship exhibited. Kobolt, A. M. Bairisches Gelehrten-Lexikon. Landshut, 
1795- PP- 52 ff.; also in his Erganzungen und Berichtigungen. Landshut, 
1824. p. 21. 

18. Fiorini. Sfere terrestri e celesti. p. 221. The author briefly describes 
the Plautus globes. The information contained therein was also kindly sent 
for insertion in this work by the director of the Museum. 

19. Gerland. Bcitrage. p. 69. See Chap, viii, n. 21. 

20. Fiorini, op. cit., pp. 200-202. 

21. Gassendi, P. Tychonis Brahei equitis Dani astronomorum coryphaei 
vita. Hagae, 1655 ; Dreyer, J. L. E. Tycho Brahe, a picture of scientific life 
and work in the sixteenth century. Edinburgh, 1890; Brahe, T. Astronomiae 
instauratae mechanica. Noribergae, 1602; Brahe, T. Epistolarum astro- 
nomicarum libri. Uraniburgi, 1596; Brahe, T. Tychonis Brahe mathim: 
eminent: Dani Opera Omnia. Ed. by J. G. Schonvetteri, Francofurti, 1648; 
Wolf. Geschichte der Astronomic, pp. 269-281 ; Kastner. Geschichte der 
Mathematik. Vol. II, pp. 376-411. 

22. Dreyer, op. cit., Chaps, v, vi. 

23. Tyconis Brahe astronomiae instauratae Mechanica. 

24. Raemdonck. Les spheres terrestres. p. 28 ; Chatel, M. Note sur une 
globe terrcstre . . . de la sviccession de Titon du Tillet. (In: Memoirc 
lus a la Sorbonne. Paris, 1865. pp. 161-170.) 

25. Marcel, G. Note sur une sphere terrestre faite en cuivre a la fin du 
XVI*' Siecle. (In : Bulletin de la Societe normande de Geographic. Rouen, 
1891. pp. i53->^'0.) 

26. Humboldt, A. Examen Critique. Paris, 1836-1839. Vol. II, pp. 152-155; 
Harrisse. Discovery, pp. 657-658. 

27. Hakluyt, R. The principal Navigations, Voyages and Discoveries of 
the English Nation. London, 1589. 

28. Hood, D. The use of both the Globes, celestial and terrestrial, most 
plainly delivered in the form of a dialogue. London, 1592. 

29. Blundeville, T. Mr. Blundeville his Exercises. London, 1594. 

30. See above, p. 193. 

31. The several editions of this work are given by Markham, C. Hues, 
Treatise on Globes, pp. xxxvii-xl. 

32. Allgemeine deutsche Biographic "Biirgi, Jobst" ; Doppelmayr, op. cit., 
p. 163 ; Wolf, R. Biirgi. (In : Biograph. z. Kulturgeschichte, 1 Zyklus, pp. 
57 ff.) ; Weidler, F. Historia astronomiae, Vitembergae, 1741. p. 375; Ger- 
land, op. cit., p. 68. 

33. Marcel, G. Note sur une mission geographique en Suisse. (In: Bulletin 
de la Societe de Geographic. Paris, 1899. pp. 76-94-) 

34. Fischer, J. The globe-goblet of Wolfegg. (In: United States Catholic 
Historical Society Historical Records and Studies. New York, 1913. pp. 275- 
279.) See for mention of other Gessner globe cups. 

[ 217 ] 



Terrestrial and Celestial Globes. 

35. A sixteenth century globe cup. (In: Royal Geographical Journal. 
London, 1919. pp. 196-197.) This particular globe of Gessner was sold at 
Christie's in London, July 23, 1919, for £3800. It is thought to have been 
made in the year 1595. Attention is called in this article to a globe cup in the 
British Museum, dated 1569. 

36. Beazley, C. R. Globe of 1593. (In: Royal Geographical Journal. 
London, 1904. pp. 496-498.) 

37. Poggendorff, J. C. Biographisch-literarisches Handworterbuch. Leip- 
zig, 1863 ; Kastner, op. cit., p. 393 ; Genard, P. Les Globes du geographe 
Arnauld Florent van Langren et de Guill. Blaeu. (In: Bulletin de la 
Societe Royale Geographic d'Anvers. Anvers, 1883. pp. 150 ff.; Van der Aa. 

38. Wieder, F. C. De Globe van Van Langren A° 1612. (In: Kon. 
Nederlandsch Aardrijkskundig Genootschap, 2^ Serie Dl. XXXII, 1915, 
pp. 231-239.) 

39. Jonge, J. K. J. de. Opkomst van het Nederlandsch gezag in Oost- 
Indie. Gravenhage, 1862. Vol. I, p. 179. The author gives here a report 
rendered by J. Hondius in which he refers to the superiority of his globes 
to those of Van Langren. The report is dated 1597. 

40. Wieder, op. cit., n. 36 above, is a description of this globe with illus- 
trations. 

41. Meucci, F. La Sfera armillere di Tolomeo construita da Antonia San- 
tucci. Firenze, 1876. 







[ 218 ] 



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